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Full text of "The farmer's own book; or, Family receipts for the husbandman and housewife; being a compilation of the very best receipts on agriculture, gardening, and cookery, with rules for keeping farmers' accounts"

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year eighteen 
hundred and thirty-two, 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 


The title and contents of this work present a better 
preface, perhaps, than could be given by enumerating 
all the claims usually accompanying the introduction 
of books. 

An attempt to assume any thing more than utility in 
this case, might convict me of the "crime" so frequently 
charged against the quill fraternity; vulgarly called 
^'clipping books and cabbaging ideas." 

Many original recipes are given, but the majority of 
them are borrowed from the most celebrated American 
and European works. 

The '•'Domestic Encyclopedia^'' "JVezy American Gar- 
dener^'' '•'American Farmer^'' ''JVew-England Farmer ^"^ 
''Journal of Health^''' "Genesee Farmer^'''' "Mackenzie's 
Receipts^'''' "Farmer''s Guide,'''' "Loudon^s Agricultural En- 
cyclopedia,'''' "Dean's Kezo-England Farmer,'" "A''ew-York 
Farmer^'' "Farmers Assistant,''^ "Farmers Manual,'''' "Ed- 
inhurgh Encyclopedia,^'' and "Library of Useful Know- 
ledge,^'' are the principal works referred to in selecting 
the matter. 

The whole taken together comprises a valuable book 
for families of any occupation or situation in life. I do 
not feel disposed to pufF, but having given credit to oth- 
ers for the matter, no delicacy is felt in representing the 
work in its true character. 


If "method is the soul of management, then the pros- 
perity and happiness of a family depend greatly on the 
order and regularity established in it. There is eco- 
nomy, as well as comfort, in a regular mode of doing 

Many husbandmen and housewives attend to tlie va- 
rious duties devolving upon them in their domestic con- 
cerns without any rule, system, or order, and therefore 
trust entirely to the precariousness of chance. 

The design of this work, is to obviate this difficulty, 
by giving, in few words, such rules as will secure bene- 
ficial results in the most important branches of Domestic 




A discovery of considerable importance has been an- 
nounced, with regard to preserving grain. To preserve 
rye, and secure it from insects and rats, nothing more 
is necessary than not to fan it after it is threshed, and 
to stow it in the granaries mixed with the chaff. In 
this state it has been kept more than three years, with- 
out experiencing the smallest alteration, and even without 
the necessity of being turned to preserve it from humidity 
and fermentation. — The experiment has not yet been 
made with wheat and other kinds of grain, and they 
may probably be preserved in chaff with equal advantage. 


Apply with a brush a solution of gum Arabic to the 
shells, or immerse the eggs therein, let them dry, 
and afterwards pack them in dry charcoal dust. — 
This prevents their being affected by any change of 

A 2 



About the first of May, raise the hive up, and strew 
some fine salt under the edge. This will drive those 
insects away. 


Take 5-8 of tallow, and 3-8 of mutton suet; melt 
them in a copper chaldron, with it mix 8 ounces of 
brandy, one of salt of tartar, one of sal ammoniac, two 
of dry potash. Throw the mixture into the chaldron, 
make the ingredients boil a quarter of an hour, then set 
the whole to cool. Next day the tallow will be found 
on the surface of the water in a pure cake. Take it 
out and expose it to the air for some days on canvass, 
[t will become white and almost as hard as wax. The 
iew is favorable to its bleaching. Make your wicks of 
ine even cotton; give them a coat of melted wax, then 
-:ast your mould candles. They will have the appear- 
'>*nce of wax in a degree, and one of them (six to a 
pound) will burn fourteen hours and not run. 


To increase a crop of barley, dissolve three pounds 
«?f copperas in a pail of boiling water. Add to this as 
much dung puddle water as will cover three or foui 
bushels of barley. Stir it, and let it steep four and 
twenty hours; when the seed is drained and spread, sift 
on fine lime, which fits it for sowing. Steeping the seed 
about twenty-four hours in the wash of a dunghill, 
without any mixture, is said to produce a very good effect. 


The farmer, when he manures his land, if he will use 
ashes, lime, salt or sand, will not be troubled with those 
insects. Dr. Rees' Cyclopaedia recommends boiling 
rain water with black soap and sulphur, and saturating 
the ground with it, which is infested with ants. 



In making cider see that the mill, the press, and all 
the materials be sweet and clean, and the straw free 
from must. The fruit should be ripe, but not rotten, 
and when the apples are ground, if the juice is left in 
pumice 24 hours, the cider will be richer, softer and 
higher colored. If the fruit be all of one kind it is 
generally thought that the cider will be better; as the 
fermentation will be more regular. The juice of the 
fruit, as it comes from the press, should be placed in 
open headed casks or vats: in this situation, it is likely 
to undergo a proper fermentation, and the person attend- 
ing may, with great correctness, ascertain when the 
first fermentation ceases; this is of great importance, 
and must be particularly a.ttended to. The fermenta- 
tion is attended with a hissing noise, bubbles rising to the 
surface and there forming a soft spungy crust over the 
liquor. When this crust begins to crack, and a white 
froth appears in the cracks level with the surface of the 
head, the fermentation is about stopping. At this time 
the liquor is in the fine genuine clear state, and must be 
drawn off immediately into clean casks; and this is the 
time to fumigate it with sulphur. To do this, take a 
strip of canvass or rag, about two inches broad and 
twelve inches long, dip this into melted sulphur, and 
when a few pails of worked cider are put into the cask, 
set this match on fire and hold it in the cask till it is 
consumed, then bung the cask and shake it, that the 
liquor may incorporate with, and retain the fumes; after 
this, fill the cask and bung it up. This cider should be 
racked off again the latter part of February, or first of 
March; and if not as clear as you wish it, put in izin- 
glass, to fine, and stir it well; then put the cask in a 
cool place where it will not be disturbed, for the finery 
to settle. Cider, prepared in this manner, will keep 
sweet for years. 

Mr. Deane observes "I have found it answer well to 
do nothing to cider till March, or the beginning of April, 
except giving a cask a small vent hole, and keeping it 
open till the first fermentation is over; then draw it off 
into good casks; and fine it with skim milk, eggs broke 


up Avitli the shells, or molasses. A quart of molasses 
Avill give a line flavour to a barrel of cider, as aycII as 
carry rJl tlie lees to the bottom. But lest it should in- 
cline the liquor to prick, or become sour, I put in at the 
same time a quart of rum or brandy; and it seldom fails 
of keeping v/cll to the end of summer. Cellars in which 
cider is kept, should have neither doors nor windows 
kept open in the summer, and the casks should stand 
steady and not be shaken to disturb the sediment. 

The casks which contain new cider should be filled 
perfectly full to permit the froth or pumice to discharge 
itself at the bung. The pressure of the pumice should 
be slow that the liquor may run the clearer. Some say 
that if the cider be racked off in a week after it is made, 
ceasing the moment it becomes muddy; in ten days a 
second time, and in fifteen days a third time, it will need 
no other process for fining or purifying it. In every in- 
stance the casks should be clean, and perfectly filled, 
cmd when filled for the last time should be bunged up 
close, and placed in a deep, dry cellar, never to be mo- 
ved till drawn off for use. 

The later the apples hang on the trees, the more spirit 
the cider will contain. In bottling cider it is recom- 
mended to raise the proof of the cider by putting in 
about two tea spoonfuls of French brandy to each bot- 
tle, which will check fermentation, and prevent the 
bursting of the botles. 


It is said that a few leaves of elder, strewed on the 
floor of a room infested with cock-roaches, will extirpate 
those insects. 


Put them in casks or bins, in layers, well covered with 
dry sand; each layer being covered. This preserves 
them from the air, from moisture, and from frost; it pre- 
vents their perishing by their own perspiration, their 
moisture being absorbed by the sand; at the same time, 
it preserves tlie flavor of the apples, and prevents their 


wilting. Pippins have been kept m this manner sound 
and fresh, till midsummer; and how much longer they 
would have kept is not known. Any kind of sand will 
answer, but it must be perfectly dry* 


An English publication stcites that plums and peaches 
may be preserved sweet through the year by the follow- 
ing process: 'Beat well up together equal quantities of 
honey and spring water; pour it into an earthen vessel, 
put in the fruits all freshly gathered and cover them 
quite close. When any of the fruit is taken out, wash 
it in cold water, and it is fit for immediate use.' 


Immerse it in boiling water, and let it remain till the 
water becomes cold. The quantity of water should be 
at least double the quantity of corn to be purified. 


Corn given to fowls should be crushed and soaked in 
water; this helps digestion, and hens will lay in winter 
that are so fed that would not otherwise. 

Feed your fowls in winter with bones, pounded fine; 
and they will need less corn, and lay as plentifully as at 
any season of the year. The bones supply the carbonate 
of lime, which is necessary for the production of the 
shell, and a part of the yolk of the e^^, — Egg shells, 
oyster shells, chalk or unburnt lime answer a similar 


To a pint of sweetened water (sweetened with sugar 
or honey,) add half a gill of vinegar; set this in an open 
vessel on the top of the hive, and at night, when the 
miller comes to his work of destruction, he will prefer 
this composition, and diving into it, will immediately 
drown. This simple method, is almost certain success. 
At all events, it is worthy of attention; and we would 
recommend to the owners of bees to make a trial of it. 



Dr. M'Culloch, of Edinburgh, has pabhshed a paper 
in the Philosophical Transactions of the city, in which 
he points out that all essential oils possess the property 
of preventing the growth of mould. His observations 
are of such general utility, that I copy them for public 

Ink, paste, leather, and seeds, are among the common 
articles Avhich suffer from this cause, and to which the 
remedy is usually applicable. With respect to articles 
of food, such as bread, cold meats, or dried fish, it is less 
easy to apply a remedy, on account of the taste. Cloves, 
however, and other spices whose flavors are grateful, 
may sometimes be used for this end; and that they act 
in consequence of this principle, and not by any parti- 
cular antiseptic virtue, seems plain, by their preventing 
equally the growth of those minute crj^ptogamous plants 
on ink, and other substances not of an animal nature. 

"The effect of cloves in preventing the mouldiness in 
Ink, is indeed generally known; and it is obtained in the 
same way by oil of lavender, in n very minute quantity, 
'or by any other of the perfumed oils. 

"To preserve leather in the same manner from this 
effect, is a matter of great importance, where the labor 
employed in cleaning harness and shoes is a cause of 
considerable expense, and where much injury is occa- 
sionally sustained from this cause. The same essential 
oils answer the purpose, as far as I have had an oppor- 
tunity of trying effectually. The cheapest, of course, 
should be selected, and it would be necessary to try oil 
of turpentine for this reason. 

"It is a remarkable confirmation of this circumstance, 
that Russian leather, which is perfumed with the tar of 
the birch tree, is not subject to mouldiness, as must be 
well known to all who possess books thus bound. They 
even prevent it from taking place in those books bound 
in calf near to which they happen to lie. The fact is 
particularly well known to Russian merchants, as they 
suffer bales of this article to lie in the London docks in 
the most careless manner, for a great length of time, 
knowing well that they ran sustain no injury of this 


ture from dampness, whereas common curried leather 
requires to be opened, cleansed, and ventilated. Col- 
lectors of books will not be sorry to learn, that a fevv^ 
drops of any perfumed oil will insure their libraries 
from this pest. 

"Dr. M. began some experiments with the same agents 
on wood, to prevent the dry rot, but not having time to 
carry them on, he recommends the important investiga- 
tion to others. — With regard to paste, he prefers rosin 
to alum as a preservative ; but lavender, or any other 
strong perfume, such as peppermint, anise, and burga- 
mot, are perfectly effectual for years, however the paste 
is composed." That which the Doctor himself employs 
in labelling, &:c. is "made of flour in the usual way, but 
rather thick, with a proportion of brow^n sugar, and a 
small quantity of corrosive sublimate. The use of the 
sugar is to keep it flexible, so as to prevent its scaling 
off from smooth surfaces ; and that of the corrosive sub- 
limate, independently of preserving it from insects, as 
an effectual check against its fermentation. This salt, 
however, does not prevent the formation of mouldiness. 
But as a drop or two of the essential oils above men- 
tioned is a complete security against this, all the causes 
of destruction are effectually guarded against. Paste 
made in this manner, and exposed to the air, dries with- 
out change to a state resembling horn; so that it may at 
any time be wetted again and applied to use. When 
kept in a close covered pot, it may be preserved in a 
state for use at all times." 

He then proceeds — "This principle seems also appli- 
cable to the preservation of seeds, particularly in cases 
where they are sent from distant countries by sea, when 
it is well known that they perish from this cause. — 
Dampness, of course, will perform its office at any rate, 
if moisture is not excluded; yet it is certain that the 
growth of the vegetables which constitute mould, acce- 
lerate the evil, whether by retaining moisture, or by 
what means is not very apparent. This in fact, hap- 
pens equally in the case of dry rot in wood, and indeed 
in all others where this cause operates. It is a curious 
illustration of the truth of this view of a remedy, that 


the aromatic seeds of all kinds are not subject to 
mould, and that their vicinity prevents it in others with 
which they are packed ; they also produce the same ef- 
fect daily, even in animal matters, without its being sus- 
pected. I need only remark, that it is common to put 
pepper into collections of insects or birds, without its 
having been remarked that it had the same power of 
keeping off mould, as of discouraging or killing the 
insects that commit ravages in these cases, 

"In concluding these hints, I might add, in illustration 
of them, that ginger-bread and bread containing cara- 
way seeds is far less liable to mouldiness, than plain 
bread. It will be a matter worthy of consideration 
how far flour might be preserved by some project of 
this kind. 


A correspondent, who had noticed in a recent num- 
ber of our journal, a paragraph recommending ground 
cork, fried in grease, as an efficacious plan for destroy- 
ing rats, states, that he lately put the plan to the test 
of experience, and completely succeeded. "The case 
was that of two old women in the village of Denny, 
who had lived in two detached garret rooms of the 
same building. The rats had long been troublesome, 
but at length had became so numerous and daring, that 
they fairly threatened to challenge the tenants with no 
longer possession. The fried cork had only been laid 
for them three nights, before the whole disappeared. 
A fact of this kind cannot be made too public, since it 
may be the means of preventing many of those serious 
accidents which so frequently occur from the use of 


Take of best soft green soap, made from fish oil, I 
pound, and of scalding water, 4 gallons. Put the soap 
into a glazed vessel with a small portion of the water; 
continue stirring it, and add the water as it dissolves, 
till tibe whole is a perfect ley. It should be used about 


90 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, or new-miik 
warm. Put the wheat into a tub, and pour on ii a 
quantity of the Uquor sufficient to cover it completely, 
and throw a blanket over it to preserve the heat. Stir 
it every ten minutes, and take off the scum. V/hen it 
has remained in this manner for an hour, drain the li- 
quor from the wheat through a sieve, or let the tub be 
furnished with a drain bottom like a brewing vat. Let 
the liquor which was drawn off, stand a few minutes 
to subside, and then pour it off the sediment. Repeat 
the operation till the whole quantity is steeped, only 
observe to add, each time, as much hot ley as was ob- 
served by the former steeping. Dry the vrheat Vv^ith 
quick lime, and sovv as soon as convenient. It will 
keep ten days after steeping; but should be spread thin 
on a dry floor. 

If a tub with a drain bottom is used, such as a hogs- 
head, with a spigot to draw off the ley, 4 ounces of 
soap, and 1 gallon of water scalding hot, will preserve a 
stock of warm ley sufficient for any cpantity of wheat. 
The operation should be performed in a clean place, at 
a distance from barns and granaries, the roofs of which 
may be observed hanging full of smut. The refuse of 
smutted wheat should be buried deep in the earth, and 
not thrown to the dunghill, from which it would be con- 
veyed to the field. 


Early potatoes may be produced in great quantity by 
resetting the plants, after taking off the ripe and large 
ones. A gentleman at Dumfries, has re-planted them 
six different times in one season, without any additional 
manure, and instead of falling off in quantity, he gets 
a larger crop of ripe ones at every raising, than the 
former ones. His plants have still on them three dis- 
tinct crops, and he supposes they may still continue to 
vegetate and germinate until they are stopped by tlie 
frost. By this means he has a new crop every eight 




Lime sown by the hand, or distributed by a machine, 
is an infalhble protection to turnips against the ravages 
of the fly. It should be apphed as soon as the turnips 
come up, and in tlie same daily rotation in which they 
were sown. The lime should be slacked immediately 
before it is used; if the air be not sufficiently moist to 
render that operation unnecessarj'. 


To preserve rye, and secure it from insects and rats, 
nothing more is necessary than not to winnow it after 
it is threshed, and to stow it in the granaries mixed 
with the chatf. In this state it lias been kept for more 
than three years without experiencing the smallest al- 
teration, and even without the necessity of being turn- 
ed, to preserve it from humidity and fermentation. — 
Rats and mice may be prevented from entering the 
barn, by putting some wild vine or hedge plants upon 
the heaps: the smell of this wood is so otTensive to 
these animals that they will not approach it. 


Procure some fresh lime, and after throwing as much 
water upon it as will reduce it to a powder, sow the 
lime in a hot state upon the land that is overrun with 
vermin, at the rate of about 12 bushels to the acre. The 
lime should be sown towards the wind, and falling upon 
them in a fermented state, will instantly kill them. 


In the year 1790, which ^tas remarkable for the quan- 
tity of rain, that fell during the hay season, the farmers 
suffered great loss from the thousands of heads of cattle 
which perished from eating damp hay. This fact ought 
to put farmers on the guard against any similar effects 
at the present time. The efficacy of salt in curing hay 
is now almost universally known; but the best advice, 
perhaps, v/hich can be given, is to be careful as to the 
(juantity given. 



These troublesome little insects may be effectually 
destroyed without the use of poison. — Take half a 
spoonful of black pepper in powder, one tea-spoonful 
of brown sugar, and one table-spoonful of cream; mix 
them well together, and place them in the room on a 
plate, where the flies are troublesome, and they will 
soon disappear. 


A highly respectable gentleman in Connecticut, who 
used to visit Ohio yearly, gave me the following prescrip- 
tion. Being from early life a water drinker, he applied 
to the late Dr. Osborn, of Middletown, to give him a 
substitute. The doctor told him to furnish himself with 
a mixture, of equal proportions, of pulverised sugar and 
ginger, and whenever he drank the bad water of the 
west, to put in as much of the composition as suited his 
taste, and he need never apprehend bad effects from a 
free use of the water. 


M. D'Arget has preserved corn, which had been in- 
fested by weevils, for a considerable time by putting it 
into vessels, previously filled with sulphurous acid. All 
the weevils perished, and the corn ceased to suffer. In 
this manner insects in seeds may not only be destroyed, 
but their presence prevented. As it might be inconve- 
nient to burn sulphur in the vessels to be filled with 
sulphurous acid, we will state another method of re- 
placing the acid, and obtaining the same results. All 
that is necessary is, to powder the seeds well with flour 
of sulphur, before they are put into the bottles or other 
vessels; or after having put the seeds into a bottle the 
sulphur may be added, and the whole well shaken to- 
gether, so as to bring it in contact with all the seeds. 
The presence of the sulphur will prevent entirely the 
attacks of the insects. 



The Hessian Flj deposits its eggs on the wheat ear 
before it is reaped; the egg is so small as to be invisible 
to the naked eye, bat may be distinctly seen with a 
microscope; sometimes one grain of wheat will be ob- 
served to liavc several of these eggs on it. They are 
attached to the wheat by a glutinous substance, de- 
posited around them by the parent lly, by which they 
arc held so firmly on the surface, as not to be easily 
removed hy the motion of reaping, threshing, &c. 
Shortly after the seeds begin to germinate in the soil, 
the genial heat of the season brings the young dy from 
its egg in the form of a very small maggot (as is the case 
with all insects;) these little maggots deposit themselves 
at the root of the stalk, to the seed of which the eggs 
had been attached, between the stem and the lowest 
blade or leaf, where they may be discovered during the 
month of j\Iay and beginning of June quietly reposing: 
here they remain until tlie warmth of the season brings 
them to maturity, v/hen they commence eating the sub- 
stance to which they are attached. It is not until this 
period that tlieir destructive effects arc visible, by the 
wheat becomins: withered and bli2;hted. This accounts 
for the fact that wheat, which is attacked by these de- 
structive insects, presents a healthy appearance in the 
month of June, the period at which the embryo-fly 
begins to use food. 

Now it is evident that if the eggs of this fly can be 
destroyed on the seed vv^heat, by any process that will 
not also destroy the vegetative quality of the grain, the 
ruinous effects will be avoided. — This can be done by 
the following very simple process. "Soak the seed 
wheat in water for twelve hours; spread it out on the 
barn floor, so as to allow the superabundant water to 
escape: then take fresh slacked lime and mix it among 
the wheat in quantity suflicient to have every grain co- 
vered with the lime, taking care to stir the wheat well 
with a shovel, so that no particle may escape coming in 
full contact with the lime, which, when thus applied, 
will in a short time destroy the eggs, and consequently 
preserve the grain from destruction." 


The egg^ which before the appUcation of the Ume ap- 
pears clear and transparent, afterwards becomes opaque, 
and puts on the appearance of an addled egg. The 
efficacy of the above remedy has been established b}' 
several experiments, one of whicii we here relate. 
Wheat supposed to be infested by the Hessian flj', 
was taken, one half of the quantity treated vfitli lime, 
and the other half was sown in the same soil with the 
prepared, in alternate drills; the result was that every 
stalk from the prepared seed came to maturity and 
was productive, whilst the alternate drills which had 
been sown with unprepared seed, were almost totally 

The above remedy for so serious an evil cannot be 
too widely circulated. 


A country housekeeper, to whom a sirloin or a steak 
is not an every day treat, has been taught, by necessity, 
hozo to keep beef; an art unknown in towns, where daily 
access can be had to markets; but it is a most valuable 
secret, equal to that of keeping venison, so highly prized 
by the quins and aldermen of England ; and I here pro- 
pose, without the prospect of any other reward than the 
hope of an honest fame, to communicate it to the Ame- 
rican public. 

Beef is never fit to be eaten in steaks until a week 
after being killed. If a piece of beef is suspended by 
a hook and string in a dry cellar, so as not to touch the 
wall, it will, in our hot climate, in the hottest season of 
summer, keep from one to two weeks without a particle 
of salt; and in winter it will keep from eight to ten 
weeks. I have this winter kept it two months, with a 
constant and great improvement to the last, and have 
no doubt I might, with increasing benefit, have kept it 
for a month longer. No one, without the proof, can 
believe how astonishingly it will improve in tenderness 
and flavor after being kept a due length of time, and it 
doubtless is much more wholesome tlian rank, tough 
beef, that is laboriously masticated to become a cause 



of dyspepsia in some and bilious fevers in others, as the 
town doctors assure us. I beg to recommend this kee- 
ping of beef to all house-keepers in town and coun- 
try, satisfied that after one fair trial, they would no 
more feed on a recently slaughtered ox than they would 
on an Abyssinian steak with CafFrarian garnishments. 

P. S. Freezing meat, (a practice not advised) pre- 
serves it in one state without much improvement. 


If the feathers of old beds have become dirty, mat- 
ted, or have lost their elasticity, by age or use, they 
should be emptied into a hogshead and washed in warm 
soap suds, agitated by means of a rake or garden hoe, 
and afterwards rinsed in clear water. They are then 
to be pressed dry by the hand, and put upon the floor 
of an empty well lighted room, and now and then whip- 
ped and stirred up; and when thoroughly dry put again 
nto ticks. They will be found after this hctter than new 
feathers; because deprived of the oil which abounds in 
the latter. 


If you have not had time to root out all the weeds on 
your premises, you will at least endeavour to prevent 
their going to seed by cutting otT the tops with a scythe 
or sickle, and it will be good economy to lodge the pro- 
ceeds of your cuttings in your barn yard, or compost 
bed. An antidote to the increase of weeds may be 
found in burning the stubble as it stands after reaping. 
On land that is designed to be sown the next year, this 
is more especially good husbandry; for it will destroy 
so many of the seeds of weeds, as to prevent the ensu- 
ing crop from being so weedy as it might otherwise be. 
At the same time this process will destroy many insects, 
clean the ground, and render it fit for the operations of 
tillage, besides fertilizing the soil by the ashes of the 



The following preventive of the mildew on Peach and 
Nectarine trees has simplicity, as well as the experience 
of many years, to recommend it: — Take of sulphur and 
rain or river water, in proportions of two ounces of sul- 
phur to every four gallons of water. Put the quantity 
which may be required into a copper or boiler, and let 
it (after it com.mences" boiling) boil for half an hour: 
after which it may be taken out, or suffered to remain 
until it becomes of a tepid state, when it ought to be 
applied to the trees by means of the garden engine or 
syringe, as in a common washing with water. The 
time for applying it is annually, as soon as the fruit is set 
and considered out of danger. 


Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears, 
whilst the used key is always bright. Dost thou love 
life? Then do not squander time^ for that is the stuff 
life is made of. The sleeping fox catches no poultry. 
He that rises late must trot all day, and shall scarce 
overtake his business at night. 

Early to bed and early to rise, 

Makes a man healthy, and wealthy, and wise. 

He that lives upon hope will die fainting — industry 
need not wish. There are no gains without pains. At 
the working man's house hunger looks in, but never 
enters. Plough deep, while sluggards sleep, aiid you 
shall have corn to sell or to keep. One to-day is worth 
two to-morrows. Handle your tools without mittens — a 
cat in gloves catches no mice. 

He that by the plough would thrive, 
Himself must either hold or drive. 

The eye of a master will do more work than both his 
hands. Not to oversee your workmen is to leave them 
your purse open. A little neglect may breed a great 
mischief — for want of a nail the shoe was lost, and for 
want of a horse the rider was lost. A fat kitchen makes 
a lean will. If you would be rich, think of saving 
as well as getting. What maintains one vice would 


bring up two children. Beware of little expenses — a 
small leak will sink a great ship. If you would know 
the want of money, go and try to borrow some — for he 
that goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing. Pride is as 
loud a beggar as want, and a great deal more saucy. 
Pride breakfasted with plenty, dined with poverty, and 
supped with infamy. Lying rides on debt's back. It 
is hard for an empty bag to stand upright. Creditors 
have better memories than debtors. 

For age and want save what you may, 
No morning's sun lasts the whole day. 

Rather go to bed supperless than rise in debt. If you 
do not hear reason, she will surely rap your knuckles. 
He that hath a trade hath an estate; and he that hath a 
calling hath a place of profit and honor. A ploughman 
on his legs is higher than a gentleman on his knees. 


I have thrown by my steamer for hog food and substi- 
tuted a boiler, and I think with manifest advantage. 
The former consisted of a 60 gallon cask, over a potash 
kettle, badly set. I could only work off four or live 
casks a day, with great labor and trouble, and the appa- 
ratus required to be luted with clay at every operation. 
With my new kettle, holding 30 gallons, which is a thin 
beautiful casting, I have cooked eight and nine barrels 
in half a day, and much better than by the steam process. 
This food consists of small refuse potatoes, of which I 
have nearly 100 bushels, or 15 per cent, of my whole 
crop, pumpkins, and a small quantity of Indian meal. 
A half day's boiling serves my hog family four or five 
days; and it is always kept prepared in advance. The 
actual expense of fattening hogs thus upon the refuse 
of the farm crop, is 50 to 75 per cent, less than feeding 
with dry corn. 

The economy of my apparatus consists much in set- 
ting the boiler so as to have all the advantage of the fire. 
The interior brick work is made to conform to tlie shape 
of the boiler, leaving an interval of four to six inches 
between them for the fire, round the whole exterior of 


the kettle, with the exception of a few inches at top, 
where the flange or rim rests upon the projecting hrick. 
Thus the hoiler is not only encompassed by the flame, 
but the heat is augmented by radiation from the brick 
work. The fuel is burnt on a grate, which extends 
nearly to the kettle, four or five inches above the level 
of its bottom. My boiler being in operation while I am 
penning these remarks, I have ascertained that a kettle 
of potatoes, with three pails of cold water, covered vnth 
boards, has been completely boiled in 18 minutes from 
the time they were put in, another boiling having been 
just previously taken out. My kettle was set by a son 
in his -teens, without assistance, and was his first effort 
in masonry. J. Buel. 

Alhayiy JVursery^ Oct. 20, 1831. 


The first thing to be considered about hay-making, is 
the time of cutting the grass. It should not be cut too 
early, or before it has got its growth, for this will cause 
it to shrink too much in drying. On the contrary, it 
should not stand too late, or till the seed be quite ripe. 
It is not only harder to cut, but the ripeness of the seed 
will cause it to shatter out while drying, which will be 
a considerable loss, as the seed is the most rich and nour- 
ishing part; and the soil will be the more exhausted by 
nourishing the seed till it come to maturity, and the 
next succeeding crop will be poorer. There never can 
be any advantage in mowing late, unless in thickening 
the grass roots, by scattering some of the seed, Avhere 
they were before too thin. He that mows early has the 
advantage of longer days for drying his hay; and of 
shorter nights, when the dews are less detrimental to 

But the farmer who has many acres of the same kind 
of grass cannot always expect to cut the whole of it in 
exactly the right season. That he may approach as 
near to right as possible, he should cut the thickest 
grass first of all; especially if it be in danger of lodg- 
ing, or so thick that the lowest leaves perish, or the 


bottoms of the stalks turn yellow. The thinnest of his 
grass should he cut next, which is apt to he ripe soonest: 
and last of all the middling sized grass, or that which 
is on a medium hetween thick and thin. 

Where a second crop is expected the same year, 
thick grass should be cut a little the earlier, that the 
roots may not be injured so much as to prevent their 
speedy recovery, by being closely covered too long by 
the first crop. 

Some regard should be had to the weather, when 
the time of cutting is in contemplation. Those, espe- 
cially, should regard it, who are able to call in as much 
assistance as they please in hay-making. 

Grass, which has not been washed by rain for several 
days, has a kind of gum on it, which is known by its ad- 
hering to the scythe. This gum is thouglit to be a 
benefit to the hay; and the farmers are fond of mowing 
their grass when this gum appears, rather than just 
after the grass has been a^ ashed by rain. 

As to the drying of liay, or the manner of making it, 
I know there are a variety of opinions. The right way 
is to do it in such a manner that as much of the sap as 
possible may be retained, and in the best state that is 
possible. In this I should think all would agree. All 
persons will allow that too much drying is hurtful. It 
is certainly a loss to rake it or stir it at all, when it is so 
dry that the leaves Avill crumble. And doubtless as 
much of the sap should be retained as is consistent with 
its being kept in good order for fodder, and for long 

Some grasses will do well with less drying than is 
needful for others. The Rhode-Island bent, as it is 
called, or red-top grass, will do with less drying than 
some other grasses. It has iDcen much practised to put 
up with so little dryness that it heats in the mow to so 
great a degree, as to make it turn brown like tobacco; 
and it is known that cattle will eat it well, and thrive 
on it. But the mow will certainly send out part of the 
virtue of the hay in steams. I cannot but think that 
all grasses should be so much dried, that the mows and 
stacks though they have a degree of heat, should not 


emit any sensible steam ; and I would not wish to have 
liay made brown by mow-burning. It surely does not 
appear to so good advantage at market. 

Were it not for the labor and cost, a good way of 
hay-making would be, for the hay-makers to follow at 
the heels of the mov/ers, at least, as soon as the dew is 
olF, and spread the swarths evenly; turn the grass about 
the middle of the same day; make it up into cocks be- 
fore night; open the hay and turn it the next day; and 
so on till it be sufficiently dried, doubling the cocks if 
signs of rain appear. It will not commonly take more 
than two or three days to dry it, unless it be very green, 
or uncommonly thick and rank. A person who has but 
little hay to meike, need not be much blamed, if he do 
it in this way; especially if the weather do not appear 
to be settled. 

The practice of the best English, Flemish, and 
French farmers, is to expose the hay as little as possible 
to the sun. It is carried in dry, but it preserves its 
green color; and you see hay two or three }ears old in 
their market, of so bright a green color, that we would 
scarcely conceive it to be cured. Yet they are in the 
practice of preserving it for years, and value it more 
for its age. If such a course be best in climates so 
cool and cloudy, how much more important would it be 
under our scorching summer suns? 

But if the weather be unsettled, or if showers be 
frequent, it may be better to spread grass well, as soon 
as it is mowed, stir it often, cock it the same day it is 
mowed, open it in the next fair day when the dew is off, 
let it sweat a little in cock, and house it as soon as it is 
dry enough. It will bear to be laid greener on a scaf- 
fold, than in a ground mow; and in a narrow mow 
greener than in a broad one. And that which is at 
least of all made, should be put upon a scaffold. 


It is not so generally known as it ought to be, that 
pounded alum possesses the property of purifying water. 
A large spoonful of pulverized alum, sprinkled into a 


hogshead of water,(the v>^ater stirred round at the (ime,) 
will, after the lapse of a few hours, by precipitating to 
the bottom the impure particles, so purify it, that it will 
be found to possess nearly ail the freshness and clear- 
ness of the finest spring water. A pailful, containing 
four gallons, may be purified with a single tea spoonful. 


The variety and excellence of agricultural implements 
is so great that the prudent farmer in regard to that, as 
well as in every other branch of his art, must study eco- 
nomy. He should not incur an unnecessary expense in 
buying them, nor in purchasing more than are essenticflly 
requisite, and can be profitably used. This maxim 
ought to be more especially attended to by young impro- 
vers, who are often tempted, under the specious idea of 
diminishing labour, and saving expense, to buy a super- 
fluous quantity of implements, v/hich they afterwerds 
find are of little use. It is remarked by an intelligent 
author on matters of husbandry, that a great diversity 
of implements, causes disappointment, ratiier than satis- 
faction to the farmer. 

In purchasing implements the following rules are to 
be observed; — they should be simple in their construc- 
tion, both that their uses may be more easily understood, 
and that any common workman may be able to repair 
them, when they get out of order; the materials should 
be of a durable nature, that the labour may be less lia- 
ble to interruption from their accidental failure; their 
form should be firm and compact, that they may not be 
injured by jolts and shaking; and that they may be the 
more safely worked by country labourers, who are but 
little accustomed to the use of delicate tools. In larger 
machines, sj'mmetry, and lightness of shape, ought to be 
particularly attended to: for a heavy carriage, like a 
great horse, is worn out by its own weight, nearly as 
much as by what he carries. The wood should be cut 
up and placed in a position the best calculated to resist 
pressure; and mortices, so likely to weaken the wood, 
should, as much as possible, be avoided; at the same 


time, implements should be made as light as is consistent 
with the strength that is necessary. The price should be 
such, that farmers in moderate circumstances can afford 
to buy them; yet for the sake of a low price, the judi- 
cious farmer will not purchase articles, either of a flims}^ 
fabric, or a faulty form; and implements ought to be 
suited to the nature of the country, whether hilly or 
level, and more especially to the quality of the soil; for 
those which are calculated for light land, will not answer 
equally well in soils that are heavy and adhesive. 


Take Seneca oil and gum elastic ; one ounce of the 
latter to be cut into thin shreds and dissolved in a pint 
of the former, and when dissolved, which will be in a 
few days, the boots are to be completely saturated or 
charged with the mixture. The manner of preparing 
the boot is as follows : Take a sponge, and rub the mix- 
ture in until the leather will absorb no more of it; the 
boots are then laid by for a day or two, when the pro- 
cess is repeated. The soles as well as the uppers are 
to be thus rubbed, and the operation is to be performed 
either before a fire or in the sun. 


Enjoyment is not found so much in luxurious as in 
simple dishes. Fried apples are better and more whole- 
some than expensive preserves. 

Tortoise shell and horn combs last much longer for 
having oil rubbed into them once and a while. 

A large stone, put into the middle of a barrel of meal, 
is a good thing to keep it cool. 

Lamps will have a less disagreeable smell, if you dip 
your wick-yarn in strong hot vinegar, and dry it. 

New-England rum, constantly used to wash the hair, 
keeps it very clean, and free from disease, and promotes 
its growth a great deal more than the Macassar oil. 
Brandy is very strengthening to the roots of the hair; 



but it has a hot, drying tendency, which New-Jhin^ia* 
rum has not. 

Woollens should be washed in very hot suds, and not 
rinsed. Lukewarm water shrinks them. 

Suet and lard keep better in tin than in earthen. 
Suet keeps good all the year round, if chopped and 
packed down in a stone jar, covered with molasses. 

Legs of mutton are very good, cured in the same way 
as ham. Six pounds of salt, eight ounces of salt-petre, 
and five pints of molasses, will make pickle enough for 
one hundred weight. Small legs should be kept in 
pickle twelve or fifteen days: if large, four or five weeks 
are not too much. They should be hung up a day or 
two to dry before they are smoked. 

A pailful of ley, with a piece of copperas half as big 
as a hen's eg^ boiled in it, will color a fine nankin color, 
which will never wash out. This is very useful for the 
linings of bed-quilts, comforters, &c. 


The way to wealth, is as plain as the way to market. 
It depends chiefly on two words, industry/ and frugality; 
that is, waste neither time nor money ^ but make the best 
use of both. 

He that would be rich with the least labour must 
have few wants: for he that has little, and wants less, 
is richer than he that has much and wants more. A tub 
was large enough for Diogenes, and a world too little 
for Alexander. 

We are ruined, not by what we . eally want, but by 
what we think we want. Never go abroad in search 
of wants; if they be real wants, they will come in search 
of you. He that buys what he does not want, will soon 
want what he cannot buy. 


The boiling required for the preservation of fruits, 
always changes their quality, and sometimes entirely 
alters their character; and it often happens, when the 
fruits are acid, as in the Tomato, that they ihibibe in 


the copper vessels, in which they are stewed to a certain 
consistence, metallic principles, which are injurious to 
health. This doable consideration induces us to pub- 
lish an excellent method for preserving the tomato, 
which does not alter the quality of this fruit, and does 
not require the action of heat. 

A sufficient quantity of salt is dissolved in spring or 
river water to make it strong enough to bear an egg; 
select perfectly ripe tomatoes, and place them v/ell, and 
without pressing them, in a stone or glazed earthen pot, 
which is to be filled with the brine; cover the pot with 
a deep plate in such a manner that it presses upon the 
fruit, and by this simple process tomatoes may be pre- 
served more than a year without attention. Before 
cooking them they should be soaked in fresh water, for 
several hours. 


It is admitted on all hands that one of the most diffi- 
cult parts of the farmer's duty is 'laying down' regularly 
and successfully grass lands. John H. Powel, an intelli- 
gent and experienced Farmer of Pennsylvania, says, that 
in this country there is not usually more than half the 
quantity of seed sown that should be to insure success — 
that from experience he has found that three half pecks 
of clover seed mixed with two bushels of orchard grass 
seed is in no instance too much to sow on an acre of land 
— that by putting in this quantity, by light harrowing 
and rolling of the ground, if the weather and soil be in 
a proper state, immediately after sowing, will secure its 
vegetating and improve the grass. Autumnal top dres- 
sing with long manure, may be profitably applied to 
protect young clover, particularly if it has been pastu- 
red. A double advantage is obtained by using abundant 
supplies of seed; the hay is finer, and of course more nu- 
tritious, and when the crop is taken off, the soil is less 
exhausted from the rays of a hot sun. 


A farmer informs us that, having often read accounts 
of the crop of corn being increased by selecting seed 


from stalks having two or more cars, he was induced to 
trj the experiment. He has selected his seed corn in 
this way for three years past, and the result has exceed- 
ed his expectation. He states that it is not uncommon 
to find in his cornfield, 'stalks with three, four, five, and 
sometimes six cars, and three of them fair, full-grown, 
and fit for seed, and that too in hills containing four or 
live stalks.' He says, 'I think my crop has been in- 
creased several bushels this year by the experiment. I 
vrould suggest a mode of selecting seed to those who 
do not cut up the corn at the roots. Vv^hen they are 
picking corn, and find a stalk with two or more ears, 
let them tie the husks together, and the ears will be 
easily known at husking.' 


The word stocky in this country, is commonly used by 
farmers to express only live stock, or tiie beasts that are 
kept upon a farm. These should not be all of one 
kind, but such an assortment as is best adapted to the 
convenience and profit of the farmer. The stock 
sliould be adapted to the nature and circumstances of 
tlie farm. 

Young stock, in general, is better than old. The 
more there are in a growing state, the greater is the 
profit. And very old cattle, when turned oflf to fat, do 
not answer so well as those which are but little past 
their prime, or full vigour. It costs more to fatten them, 
and the meat is not so valuable. 

It is best to begin with a considerable variety of ani- 
mals; that the farmer, by observing the profit he gets 
from each kind, may afterwards vary, as he finds to be 
best. For tliis cannot be determined, but by some ex- 
perience: Because some animals prosper l3est on one 
farm, and some on another; some best under one mana- 
ger, and some under another. 

A variety indeed, for other reasons, is always best: 
One is, because almost "every farm produces a variety 
of food, some of which will answer best for one animal, 
and some for anotlier. Even in the same pasture, that 


which one species of animals leave, another will feed 

Also, the stock should vary, in some proportion as the 
lands of a farm do. As some farms contain a large 
proportion of high and dry pasture grounds, the greater 
quantity of sheep should be kept. Where low meadow 
abounds, the kind of stock should be increased, which 
will do best on coarse water-grasses; which is well 
known to be neat cattle, that are young and growing. 
But if a farm yield a plenty of good sweet grass, it is 
the more suitable for a dairy farm, and the greater 
proportion of cows ought to be kept. 

But on no farm should horses be multiplied beyond 
the number which are needed, or which can be em- 
ployed to advantage. For they are great eaters, and 
require the best of the fodder and pasture. A small 
farmer can scarcely afford to keep one, unless he puts 
him to the draught. 

Let a farm be what it will, it should never be over- 
stocked. This is an error that too many farmers in this 
country are guilty of. Doubtless it arises from a cove- 
tous disposition; but they sadly miss their aim. Instead 
of gaining, they lose by it. A half starved stock can 
never be profitable. 

A farm may be said with truth to be overstocked, 
when a greater number of animals are kept, than can 
be well fed with its produce, during the whole year. 
For it is a ruinous practice, to suffer a beast to pine 
away, and lose, in one part of the year, the flesh he 
gains in another. And when the farmer is constrained 
to purchase food for his stock, he too often affords them 
but a scanty allowance. Sometimes, it is not in his 
power to obtain it. 

The starvation of cattle, or keeping them too short 
of food, not only prevents their being profitable to the 
owner, but teaches them to be disorderly, and to break 
through, or leap over fences ; and many times to become 
absolutely ungovernable; so that they must either be 
killed, or sold off at a low price; in either of which 
cases, there is often much inconvenience and loss. 



It is far better that some of the stock of food should 
he left in the spring, than that it should fall short. It 
is a good reserve against a season of scarcity: And such 
seasons often happen in this country by drought. 

The following general rules, as to the management of 
stock may deserve attention. 

'•1. Animals intended for the butcher, should be kept 
in a state of regular improvement. The finer breeds 
are highly fed from their birth, and are almost always 
fat. With other breeds, and on pastures of inferior 
quality, this is neither necessary nor practicable. But 
in every case the same principle of improvemiCnt should 
be adhered to, and such animals ought never to be al- 
lowed to lose flesh, in the hopes of afterwards restoring 
it by better feeding. 

"2. The size should never be above that which the 
pasture can support in a thriving condition. The at- 
tempt to raise them to an undue size, by crossing, is cen- 
surable. In regard to size, the stock of every kind, 
and of all the various breeds, should be proportioned 
to the quantity, and the quality of their intended food. 

"3. The best pasture should be allotted to that por- 
tion of the stock, which goes first to market; the next 
in quality to the breeders; and the coarse pasture, to 
the inferior or growing stock. 

"4. Great care should be taken, not to overstock pas- 
ture, which is attended with great loss to the farmer, and 
the community. This ought to be particularly avoided 
in young and growing animals. If they are kept poor 
during one part of the year, they will scarcely thrive 
during the remainder; and whenever ill fed, will never 
attain to their proper size and proportion. 

"Lastly, tlie food, whatever it may be, should not be 
too suddenly changed. It is seldom profitable to bring 
lean animals immediately from coarse to rich pastures; 
and a change from dry, to succulent food, and vice versa, 
should be gradually etfected. A change of pasture, 
liowever, of (he same quality, tends to produce a greater 
accumulation of fat. 

The following observations relative to the size and 
form of stock are by Henry Cline, Esq. an English Sur- 


geon. Thej have met the approbation of the most 
eminent agriculturists both in America and Great 

"It has been generally understood that the breed of 
animals is improved by crossing with the largest males. 
This opinion has done much mischief, and would have 
done more if it had not been counteracted by the desire 
of selecting animals of the best forms and proportions, 
which are rarely to be met with in those of the largest 
size. Experience has proved that crossing has only suc- 
ceeded in an eminent degree in those instances in which 
the females were larger than in the usual proportion of 
the females to the males; and that it has generally failed 
when the males were disproportionally large. 

The external form of domestic animals has been much 
studied, and the proportions are well ascertained. But 
the external form is an indication of the internal 
structure. The principles of improving it must there- 
fore be found on a knowledge of the internal parts. 

Of these the lungs are of the first importance. It is 
on their size and soundness that the strength and health 
of an animal principally depend. The power of con- 
verting food is in proportion to their size. An animal 
with large lungs is capable of converting a given quantity/ 
of food into more nourishment than one with smaller lungs; 
and therefore has a greater aptitude to fatten, 

''Chest. The size and form of the chest indicate the 
size of the lungs, of which the form should approach to the 
figure of a cone having the apex situated between the 
shoulders, and its base towards tlie loins; a circular form 
of chest is preferable to one deep and narrow; for 
though the latter may have greater girth, the former 
will have greater internal space in proportion. 

"Head, The head should be small, by which the birth 
is facilitated to the offspring, it also indicates the ani- 
mal to be of a good breed, and occasions less weight of 
unprofitable substance to the consumer. 

"Horns are useless to domestic animals, and occasion 
a great weight of bone in the head. The skull of a ram 
with horns weighed five times as much as that of one 
without horns, each being four years old. A mode of 


breeding, which would prevent the production of horns, 
would therefore afford a considerable saving. 

"The length of the neck should be proportioned to 
the height of the animal, that it may collect its food 
with ease. 

'^Muscles* The muscles and tendons, which are their 
appendages, should be large, by which an animal is ena- 
bled to travel with greater facility. 

''Bones, The strength of an animal does not depend 
on the size of the bones, but on that of the muscles; 
many animals with large bones are weak, their muscles 
being small. Animals imperfectly nourished during 
growth have their bones disproportionally large. If this 
originates from a constitutional defect, they remain weak 
during life; large bones may therefore indicate an im- 
perfection in the organs of nutrition." 

Of the improvement of form. The chief point to be 
attended to for the improvement of form, from Mr. 
Cline's principles, is the selection of males for breed 
of a proportionally smaller size than the females, both 
being of approved forms; the size of the foetus depends 
on the size of the female, and therefore when the female 
is disproportionally small, her oifspring has all the dis- 
proportion of a starveling from want of due nourishment. 

The larger female has also a greater supply of milk, 
and her offspring is therefore more abundantly provided 
with nourishment after birth. 

When the female is large in proportion to the male, 
the lungs of the offspring will also be greater. By 
crossing in this manner, there are produced animals with 
remarkably large chests, as has been often noticed ; the 
advantage of large lungs has been already pointed out. 

In animals where activity is required, this practice 
should not be extended so far as in those which are in- 
tended for the food of man. 

The size of animals is commonly adapted to the soil 
which they inhabit; when the produce is scanty, the 
breed is small; the large sheep of Lincolnshire would 
starve, where the small sheep of Wales find abundant 


Crossing may be attended Avith bad effects, even 
when begun on good principles, if the above rule be 
attended to throughout; for instance, if large ewes 
were brought to Wales, and sent to the rams of the 
country, the offspring would be of improved form; and 
if sufficiently fed, of a larger size than the native ani- 
mals, but the males of the breed would be dispropor- 
tionately large to the native ewes, and therefore would 
produce a starveling ill formed race with them. 

The general mistake in crossing has arisen from an 
attempt to increase the size of the native race of ani- 
mals; being a fruitless effort to counteract the laws of 
nature; which from theory, from practice, and extensive 
observation, Mr. Cline, concluded to be decidedly wrong; 
for in proportion to this unnatural increase of size, they 
become worse in form, less hard}', and more liable to 

Tlie Massachusetts Agricultural Repository, vol. vi. 
p. 78, contains some valuable remarks on the subject 
of "Dairy Stock," by S. W. Pomeroy, Esq. We shall 
give the following extract, which presents an important 
fact, not sufficiently known or attended to by writers 
who have treated on the same or similar subjects, 

"In the selection of bulls, most farmers confine their 
attention to form and colour only, instead of tracing 
their descent to a valuable dairy stock. It has been 
observed by Linnasus that those properties of animals 
which relate to the vessels, or in scientific terms, the cor- 
tical substance, or vascular sifstem, are derived from the 
males^'' and among other examples tending to confirm 
this opinion, he states "that a cross from the male An- 
gora goat, with the common female goat produces that 
fine wool or substance, called Camel's hair; but .that the 
progeny from the male common goat with the female 
Angora, is productive of nothing but the same Avorthless 
hair of the sire." 


The remark will, at first view, strike most persons as 
a kind of contradiction in terms, that the very richest 
land is not that on which Farmers have the best success, 


and yet nothing is more certain. The first quality 
of land, is generally considered to be river alluvion: 
next to this, the richest upland, such as a fat and tena- 
cious loam; then a sandy loam, or sand and clay; and 
finally a dry gravel. Of all these descriptions of soil, 
1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th, the last is that on which we gene- 
rally find the best farmers, not only, but the most suc- 
cessful farming. I have traversed most parts of the 
United States, from Maine to North Carolina, and be- 
tween the great western Lakes and the Atlantic, and 
have every where seen proof of the correctness of these 
remarks. The first choice of land, in the settlement of 
every new country, taking the qualities as designated 
above, is always in the numerical order, as they stand; 
and the 4ih, after some 20 to 50 years, always becomes, 
except in some very rare cases of river alluvion, the 
first, and the whole order is reversed ! There may be 
particular exceptions, but as a general remark, the 
above observations will be found, on the strictest exa- 
mination, to be sanctioned by general facts. Such was 
the case, in the early history of the settlement of this 
continent, such it has been, in every part of the country, 
and such it still is, as settlements advance, every where. 
One generation succeeds another, the second invariably 
adopting different views from the first, if continuing to 
reside on the same land; and yet all others, all of those 
who are uninstructed by personal experience and obser- 
vation, or very nearly all, advance to the wilds with the 
old fashioned errors of opinion! Were we to omit ta- 
king into consideration the grounds of this mistake, the 
general perseverance in it, would seem to imply a 
strange want of prudent foresight, or even a want of 
common understanding. — Let us examine this matter a 
little, for it is one of very general importance. 

Lands in a state of nature, wild lands, to which so 
large a proportion of the young men resort for future 
farms, if clothed with timber, forest trees, present very 
delusive appearances, such, exactly, as would be likely 
to mislead the judgment. Excepting only the river allu- 
vion, universally sought as of the first quality, almost 
without looking at the soil, the three other qualities are 


found, the second and third, covered with a thick depo- 
sit of vegetable matter, leaves, partly decayed, 'soft as 
an under bed,'' 'black as my shoe.'' — Such is the surface. 
On tearing up some handfuls of tlie ground, this is well 
blackened of course, and little is thought of looking for 
the sub-soil, as those invariably do, who have once been 
deceived by black muck, and these soft beds of leaves. 
Brooks are plenty, in such woods, though they will be 
scarce, on the same land, when opened to the sun, and 
the blankets and bed of leaves are removed so as to dry 
the surface of the ground. 

On the 4th quality of land, the dry and warm gravel, 
there is none of this great store of slowly rotting leaves, 
because they rot rapidly, and fires often burn them up, 
the land being dry; and brooks, and springs, are even 
more scarce than they will be when the woods are de- 
stroyed. The ground, having its surface uncovered, and 
the woods generally more open, presents an appearance 
of nakedness, especially after having passed over black 
muck lands, shrouded in leaves. — With no allowance 
for the far greater frequency of fires, to burn off the 
leaves, and to destroy much of the growth of wood, 
keeping the woods more open, this land is condemned, 
for barrenness, and the land of muck is chosen, all blan- 
keted and carpeted with leaves. We may, on reading 
this, admitting it to be a true and faithful outline or de- 
lineation, all agree that we would act more wisely, and 
yet 99 in a hundred of us, uninstructed by experience, 
would probably choose the carpeted land, as 99 in a 
hundred have done before, in all parts of the United 
States. I would not, and did not, but my father did, 
much to his regret, and I had the benefit of his expe- 
rience, as well as my own, having been born and bred 
on one of those carpeted farms. 

Land, that is cold and wet, may bear immense 
growths of trees, as of the elm, ash, baswood, birch, 
beech, maple and hemlock; and having a very thick 
shade, tlie ground will be cold, and wet, and the leaves 
must, of course, decay very slowly. Hence the carpe- 
ting, whicii is, invariably, a sure indication of either cold, 
or wet land, or of both. If of both, it never will make 


a farm for grain; and grass, for pasture, and for hay, 
which grows on such land, is always very inferior in 
richness, to that groAvn on land that is warm and dry. 
The difference is very great. The most nutritious grass, 
grows only where the land is so dry, and warm, that it 
must be sown frequently with seed, in order to keep up 
the sward. This is what I call a medium soil, good, alike 
for grass and grain, on which I should no more expect 
crops of grass, except from seed, than of grain. One 
acre of such ground, in pasture, or meadow, will keep 
as much stock as one and a half, or even two, or three, 
of your black muck cold and wet grass land. The ap- 
pearance, to be sure, in pasture, will be very different. 
The grass may be very long, in your wet, cold land 
pasture, but yet very poor feed: in the other, it will 
be far more nutritious, short and sweet, like a well 
told story. 

With land that is dry and v/arm, the good husband- 
man, may always succeed in getting good crops. He 
may even make the soil as fertile as that of the very 
richest of land, and far more sure in its crops. Good 
husbandry, constantly enriches the soil. But it is al- 
most impossible to do this, with land naturally cold, and 
wet. It has not v, armth enough of temperament, to be 
sensitive to kind treatment, but is like some men, so 
phlegmatic, as to offer no principle of life to act upon. 
Heat, and cold, are always antipodes. You can never, 
by the utmost kindness, overcome natural antipathies. 
The very cause of the muck, which misleads so many 
in the choice of lands, is a natural coldness in the soil, 
where leaves are presei-vcd from decay, by cold, and by 
wet, not moisture, but an excess of wetness. Such 
lands, when cleared, will produce grain crops, while the 
muck lasts, and is rotting by the power of the sun, but 
is sterile, ever afterwards, unless covered with a new 
soil, meide artificially, and at more expense than the cost 
of warm and good land. This can be effected by 
trench-ploughing, under-draining, quick-lime as a ma- 
nure, bringing up the hard-pan, almost always the only 
sub-soil of mucky lands, but the cost is too great for £iny 
thing but experiment, and on a small scale. 


A celebrated agricultural writer says, 'There is not 
a single step in the life of a farmer that does not prove 
the advantage of his keeping regular accounts;' and yet 
there are very few who attend to this important branch 
of rural economy. 

A few rough memoranda, often scrawled v>4th chalk 
over the fire-place, or behind the door, are too often the 
only records which a farmer makes of his dealings either 
by way of barter or ready money; and he knows as 
little about his circumstances, and the amount of what 
he would be v/orth provided his debts were paid, as he 
does about the Chinese language, or the most approved 
method of calculating eclipses. 

The advantages resulting from clear and accurate 
accounts are properly appreciated in other pursuits in 
life, but it is doubtfiil whether they are greater in any 
occupation than in that of farming. Sir John Sinclair 
has given some maxims on this subject, which are in 
substance as follows: 


Every farmer, v/ho desires to know correctly to what 
profit he does business, should provide himself with a 
book, which he may call his General Stock Book., and ia 
this, some time in December, he should register the re- 
sult of a general survey of the condition and worth of 
his whole property, including all his debts and credits. 
Having such a book to refer to at all times and on all 
occasions will afford much satisfaction to his mind. In 
the first place he should order in all his tradesmen's 
bills, and in the mean time he may take an examination 
and account of all his household goods, horses, cattle, 
poultry, corn, grain, in straw or threshed, hay or other 
Ibdder, v/ood, manure, wagons, carts, ploughs, and im- 
plements of all kinds — the state of his fences, gates, 
S7 D 


drains, &:c., and make an estimate of the neccssarj 
repairs. Minutes being made on waste paper, the par- 
ticulars may be afterwards entered into the Stock Book, 
with such a degree of minuteness as may be judged 
necessary. After this general register, a Dr. and Cr. 
account may be drawn out, the balance of which will 
exactly show the present worth of the estate. 
The form of the account may be as follows: 

Stock Dr* Contra Cr, 

On the Dr. side should be entered all the farmer 
owes, and on the Cr. side all he possesses and all that 
is owing to him. He must rate every thing at what he 
judges the fair present worth, was it then sold ; manure 
and tillage performed must be valued at the common 
rate of the courftry. 

If a farmer wishes to be very correct in his calcula- 
tions of the prolit and loss of a lot of stalled oxen for 
instance, or the crop of a particular field, his readiest 
method is to make an account for either one or the other 
in his ledger of Dr. and Cr. On the Dr. side let him 
place the cost, including every minute particular, and on 
the Cr. side the returns. On the sale of the articles, the 
account is closed, and the balance demonstrates the 
profit and loss. 



glOO 00 Cincinnati, March \st, 1831. 

Sixty days after date I promise to pay John Sharp 
or order, One hundred dollars. 

Value received. William Doe. 


,$1,500 00 Cincinnati, April 6th, 1831. 

Ninety days after date for value received, I promise 
to pay John Sharp or bearer. One thousand five hundred 
dollars, with interest from this date. 

John Doe. 



|570 50 Lexington^ May b/, 1831. 

Thirty days after date I promise to pay to Jeremiah 
Hanks Five iiundred and seventy dollars and fifty cents. 
Value received. 

Peter H. Sharp. 

ON demand. 

|50 00 Indianapolis^ July lOtk, 1831. 

On demand I promise to pay to the order of Richard 
Doe Fifty dollars. Value received. 

Jonathan Hopkins. 


$25 25 Cincinnati^ June \st^ 1831. 

On demand I promise to pay John Doe or order, 
Twenty-five dollars and twenty-five cents. Value 
received. Richard Doe. 


20 00 Louisville^ January \st^ 1831. 

Good, at sight, for Twenty dollars. Value received. 

Joseph Don. 


$400 00 Madison^ April 4th, 1831. 

For value received I promise to pay Jonathan James 
or order, Four hundred dollars, in the following in- 
stalments, namely, one hundred dollars on the first day 
of May next, and the further sum of one hundred dol- 
lars on the tenth of July next, and the remaining sum 
of two hundred dollars on the first day of January, 
eighteen hundred and thirty-two, with lawful interest 
from the payment of the first instalment herein named. 

William Cash. 



$300 00 Connersvilh, May 1st, 1831. 

We jointly and severally promise to pay Daniel 
Blank Jr. or order, on the third of December next, 
three hundred dollars for value received. 

John J. Phillips. 
Benjamin Oglethorp. 

A note payable in produce. 

$30 00 Jamestown, April \st, 1831, 

Thirty days after date, for value received, I promise 
to pay James Hodges Jr. or order, the value of thirty 
dollars, in merchantable wheat, at the market price at 
the time this becomes due. 

John Peters, Senior, 

$300 00 Jamestown, April \st, 1831. 

For value received I promise to pay Hugh Fisk or 
order, an equivalent to the sum of three hundred dollars, 
payable in the following manner, namely: The value 
of one hundred dollars on the first of May next, in {here 
name the said kinds of stock or produce.) The further 
sum of two hundred dollars on the tenth of June next, 
in {here name the articles, <^c. particularly.) All of which 
articles, goods or chattels are to be in good merchant- 
able order, and valued at the market price at the sever- 
al periods in which they become due. 

Thomas Flim, Jr. 

judgment note. 
I promise to pay William Dunallen Jr. of the City 
of Cincinnati, merchant, or order, five hundred dollars 
with lawful interest, on the first day of June ensuing, 
for value received. And further, 1 do hereby empower 
any attorney of any of the courts of the City of Cin- 
cinnati, or of any other court of recordof Ohio, to 


confess judgment for the above sum and costs with 
release of errors, &c. Witness my hand, this first daj 
of May, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and thirty. 

John I. Worthy 
In presence of A. B. 
C. D. 



$500 00 Cincinnati^ June Is/, 1831. 

Ten days after sight, pay to the order of John J. 
Mills five hundred dollars, value received, without fur- 
ther advice, which charge to the account of 

David Readymoney. 

Messrs. Floyd, Jones, &, Co. 


This bill bindeth me Andrew Brownson of- 

in the sum of fifty dollars to be paid unto John Y. 
Yates, his certain attorney, executors, administrators, 

or assigns, on or before the day of which 

will be in the year together with lawful interest 

for the same: For the true payment whereof, I do 
bind myself, my heirs, executors, and administrators, 
and each of them unto the said John Y. Yates, his ex- 
ecutors, administrators, and assigns in the penal sum of 
eight hundred dollars. In witness &c. 

A. B. C. 


Israel Thompson, 

To H. L. Bamum, Dr. 
For three hundred bushels of wheat, at one dollar 
per bushel, $300 00 

One cow, at thirty dollars, 30 00 



Three tons of hay, at ten dollars per ton, 30 00 

Payment received. $360 00 

Cincinnati, May 1st, 1831. 

Philo Jones, for 

H. L. Barnum. 


Received, this first day of May, A. D. 1831, from 
Frederick Pay, thirty dollars, being in full for one cow, 
sold by me, to the said Frederick Pay. 

$30 00 Charles P. Brair. 

Cincinnati, May Wth, 1831. 
Received, this day, of Peter Paymaster, one hundred 
dollars, being in full of all demands. 
$100 00 Charles Robinson. 


Received, the twentieth day of September, A. D. 
1831, from Henry Hobbs, by the hand of Morris Bil- 
lings, the sum of two hundred dollars, in full for sundry 
articles of produce, bought by the said Henry Hobbs 
from me. 

$200 00 Amos B. Phelps. 


Received, Versailles, May first, A. D. 1831, from 
Richard Doc, his promissory note, payable to me or 
order, three months after date, for five hundred dollars, 
due to me for certain produce, bought from me, by the 
said Richard Doe, which, when paid, will be in full of 
all demands. 
Mi^^^OO'OiT H. Brown. 



Received, the day of, &c. from D. Doe, an 

order, drawn in my favor upon Conrad Hughes, Jr. for 

the sum of upon sight, which, when paid, 

will be in full of all demands I have against the said 
I). Doe. 

Samuel Harrison. 

a short business order. 

Mr. John James, 

Please pay H. L. Barrows five dollars, 
and charge the same to my account. 

Philip Hays. 


Received, this first day of June, A. D. 1831, from 
James Johnson, one bay horse, {or any other article^ as the 
case may 6e,) which I am to sell for {here men- 
tion the terms) and duly account to the said James John- 
son for the same. 

James Peters, Jr. 


Article of agreement, between Adam Painter of, &:c. 
of the one part, and John Stewart of, &c. of the other 
part, as follows, viz: — 

Whereas, the said Adam Painter hath agreed with 
and hired the said John Stewart, to be his overseer or 
laborer (as the case may be) for the well ordering, 
improving, and managing, for the best and most profit 
and advantage of the said Adam, in good husband-like 
manner as herein after mentioned, all that farm or tene- 
ment, barns, stables, out-houses, lands, meadows, and 
pasture-ground, with the appurtenances thereunto be- 
longing, now in the tenure or occupancy of the said 
Adam, situated in Blockley, and commonly called or 
known by the name of Painter's Grange, for the terra 


of one year from the first day of April next coming, 
after the date thereof, and so from year to year after- 
waids, for and during the term of three years more, if 
he the said Adam Painter shall think fit to retain the 
«aid John Stewart, in his said service, and not other- 
wise, at and for the yearly salary or wages of three 
hundred dollars, payable quarterly as herein after men- 
tioned: Now it is thereupon covenanted, agreed, and 
concluded, by and between the said parties to these 
presents, for themselves, their executors, administrators, 
and assigns, in manner and form following, that is to 
say: the said John Stewart, for himself, his, &c. doth 
covenant, &c. to and with the said Adam Painter, his, 
&;c. by, &c. that the said John shall and will, with the 
assistance herein after covenanted to be afforded to him 
by the said Adam, in a good husband-like manner, and 
at seasonable times, in the year, from time to time during 
go long as he shall continue in the said service of the 
said Adam, well and sufficiently plough and keep in til- 
lage the number of one hundred acres, little more or 
less, parcel of the farm aforesaid, every year, yearly, 

and shall and will leave acres thereof, to be 

laid fallow every other year, and plough the same 

acres three times before it be sown again; and 

shall sow or plant the remaining acres at sea- 
sonable times, in the year, with such corn and seed as 
the said Adam, his executors, or assigns, shall from time 
to time direct and appoint; and the same so sown or 
planted shall, in good husband-like manner, harrow or 
plough: And that he, the said John Stewart, with the 
workmen to be furnished him by the said Adam Pain- 
ter, shall, from time to time, during the term of four 
years, or so long thereof as he shall remain in the said 
service of the said Adam, at seasonable times in the 
year, in a good husband-like manner, gather, husk, and 
crib, all the corn, and reap, cut down, and shock, all the 
grain that shall stand, grow, or be in or upon the said 
farm, or any part thereof, and do all other things that 
shall be convenient for making the same fit to be housed, 
and then shall fetch in and lay up the same in the barn 
belonging to the farm: And also, well and sufficiently 


repair, maintain, keep and amend, the fences and en- 
closures of or belonging to tiie said farm and premises, 
in, by, and with, all needful and necessary repairs, and 
amendments during the said term: And shall and will 
manure all the meadows of the said farm from the first 
day of April to the twenty-first day of June, or so much 
longer every year during so long of the said term of 
three years as he shall continue in the said service 
of the said Adam, his executors, or assigns, as shall be 
convenient for hay: And shall and will also, at season- 
able times in the year, yearly, during the said term, in 
good and husband-like manner, mow all the said mea- 
dows, and in like manner make up all the hay, and 
carry it from the said meadow to the yard belonging to 
the said farm, and there lay it up in a stack or stacks: 
And shall and will lay all the dung, soil, and compost, 
that shall be made in or about the yard and out-houses 
belonging to the said farm, and such other dung and 
soil as the said Adam shall buy or provide for that pur- 
pose, to and upon such part of the lands and grounds of 
the said farm as the said Adam, or his executors or as- 
signs, shall from time to time direct and appoint; and at 
seasonable times in the year shall there spread the 
same: In consideration of all v/hich premises, he, the 
said Adam Painter, for himself, his executors, adminis- 
trators, and assigns, doth covenant, grant, and agree, to 
and with the said John Stewart, his executors and as- 
signs, by these presents, in manner and form following, 
that is to say: that he the said Adam Painter, his execu- 
tors, administrators, or assigns, shall and will well and 
truly pay, or cause to be paid, unto the said John 
Stewart, the said yearly wages or salary of three hun- 
dred dollars, during so long of the aforesaid term of 
four years, as he the said John shall continue in the said 
service and employment of the said Adam, on the four 
quarterly days, that is to say, on the first days of April, 
July, October, and January, in equal portions, and shall, 
during the same time, allow him to occupy, with his 

family, the following premises, viz. ; and shall, 

moreover, furnish him with workmen of the following 
descriptions, viz. , to be under his control and 


direction for the purposes herein before particularlj 
mentioned. In witness whereof, &c. 


Articles of Agreement, made and concluded the first 
day of July, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight 

hundred and twenty-eight, between A. B. of in 

Hartford County, and state of Maryland, hatter, of the 
one part, and C. D. of the same place, merchant, of the 
other part, as follows, to wit: 

The said A. B., for the consideration herein after 
mentioned, doth, for himself, his heirs, executors, and 
administrators, covenant, promise, grant, and agree, to 
and v/ith the said C. D., his heirs and assigns, by these 
presents, that he, the said A. B., shall and will, on or be- 
fore the tenth day of May next ensuing the date hereof, at 
the proper cost and charges of the said A. B., his heirs 
and assigns, by good and lawful deed or deeds, well 
and sufficiently grant, convey, and assure, unto the said 
C. D., his heirs and assigns, in fee simple, clear of all 
incumbrances, all that messuage, &:c. [Here describe 
the property.] 

In consideration whereof, the said C. D., for himself, 
his heirs, executors, and administrators, doth covenant, 
promise, and agree, to and with the said A. B., his heirs 
and assigns, by these presents, that he, the said C. D., 
his heirs, executors, and administrators, or some of them, 
shall and will, on the execution and delivery of the 
said deed as aforesaid, well and truly pay, or cause to 
be paid, unto the said A. B., his executors, administra- 
tors, or assigns, the sum of two thousand dollars, in 
manner following, to wit: one thousand dollars, part 
thereof, on the delivery of the deed for the premises, as 
aforesaid, and the residue thereof, in two equal yearly 
payments thereafter, all without interest, for which the 
said C. D. shall give to the aforesaid A. B. bonds with 
sufficient security for the payment of the same, if re- 
quired. And upon his, the said C. D., executing and 
delivering the bonds aforesaid, the said A. B. shall give 
unto the said C. D. possession of the premises. 


And for the true performance of all and every the 
covenants and agreements aforesaid, each of the said 
parties bindeth himself, his heirs, executors, and admi- 
nistrators, unto the other, his executors, administrators, 
and assigns, in the penal sum of four thousand dollars, 
lawful money of the United States, firmly by these 
presents. In witness whereof, the said parties to these 
presents, have hereunto set their hands and seals. 
Dated the day and year first above written. 
Sealed and delivered) 
in the presence of ) 


Agreed, the day of , between John Barnes, 

of, &c., of the one part, and James Pugh, of, &c., of the 
other part, as foUoweth, viz. 

The said John Barnes doth let unto the said James 
Pugh, and the said James agrees to take all that, &c. 
for one year, from the first day of January next, and for 
such longer time after the expiration of the said one year, 
as both the said parties shall agree, and until the end 
of three months after notice shall be given by either of 
the said parties to the other of them for leaving the said 

premises, at and for the yearly rent of dollars, 

to be paid quarterly on the first Mondays in April, July, 
October, and January, by even and equal portions, which 
said yearly rent the said James Pugh doth hereby, for 
himself, his executors, and administrators, covenant and 
agree to pay to the said John Barnes [if freehold say] 
and his heirs, [but if otherwise say] executors, adminis- 
trators, and assigns, accordingly, for so long time as he 
shall hold and enjoy the said premises as aforesaid, and 
until the end of the said three months next after notice 
shall be given by either of the said parties, to the other 
of them, for leaving the said premises as aforesaid. In 
witness, &c. 



Agricultural implements, to choose, • 

Apples, to keep, ; - 

Ants, to destroy, . - . - 

Bad water, to remedy. 
Barley, to increase a crop of, 
Bees, to preserve from insects. 
Bee-miller, to destroy, 

Beef, to keep, 

Boots and shoes, to prevent taking in 

Cockroaches, to kill, 

Cider, to make, 

])amaged hay, to guard against. 

Early potatoes, to produce in great 


Eggs, to preserve, - - - - 

Farmer's accounts, . . - - 
*' General account of stock, 
" Promissory notcp, form of, 
" Note without interest, 

" Do. with interest, 

" Do. payable to the person 

to whom the note is 
given, - 
" Do. payable to order, ■ 

" Do. on demand, 

" Do. payable ill instalments, 

" Do. given by two or more 

" Do. payable in produce. 

" Do. by instalments, paya- 

ble in produce, or 
any species of goods 
or chattels, - 
" Do. judgment, 

" Bills, form of, - 
" Do. of exchange, 

" Do. penal, 

" Do. mercantile, • 

" Plain receipts, 
" Receipt for payment by the 
hand of a third per- 
" Do. for a promissory note, 

" Do. for an order drawn 

upon a third person, 
" Do. for property left for 

sale, - 
" Short business order, - 
" Agreement between a mas- 
ter and overseer or laborer 
about the management of 
a farm, 
" Agreement for the sale of 


'' Do. for letting a house, ^•c. 

Feathers, to renew, - - - 18 
Fowls, to feed so as to make lay in any 

sea.son of the year, - - - 9 

Fly on turnip, to destroy, • - 14 

Grain, to preserve, - ... 5 
" To keep from the depredations 

of vermin, - • - 14 

Grass lands, to lay down, • - - 27 

Hay, to make, - - - - 21 

House flies, to destroy, - - .15 
Hogs, an economical way of fattening, 20 
Hessian fly, to destroy, - - - 16 

15 Lands for farming, to select, 







Miscellaneous short receipts, - - 25 
" To obtain enjoyment by using 

simple food, - - - 
" Tortoise shell combs, to render 

durable, .... — 

" Meal to preserve, - . . — 
" To prevent the disagreeable smell 

of lamps, .... — 

" To keep the hair clean, . - — 
" "Woollens, to prevent shrinking 

when wasiiod, - • - 26 

" Lard and suet, to keep, - . — 

'• Legs of mutton, to cure like ham, — 

" Simple way to color nankin color, — 

Mouldincss, to prevent, - - - 10 

Musty corn, to cure, - - - - 9 

Mildew on peach trees, ^c. to prevent, 10 

Plums and peaches, to preserve through 

the year, 9 

Rats, to destroy, - - - • )2 

Seeds, to preserve, - - - -15 

Slugs on land, to destroy, - - 14 

Smut in wheat, to prevent, • . 13 

Stock, to select, - - - 28 

" Method of feeding, - - - 30 

" The proper size of, - - — 

" Proper form of the chest, 31 

" The head, - - — 

" " Muscles, . 32 

" " " Bones, - - — 

" Improvement of the general 

form of, .... — 

" Crossing, - - • • 31 

Sayings, for farmers, - - - 19 

Seed corn, to select, - - - 27 

Tallow for candles, to purify, - 6 
Tomatoes, to preserve, - - .26 

Water, to purify, - - - - 23 

Weeds, to destroy, - - ■ - 18 

Wealth, the way to, - • - 26 


^ --— -^ ~ - — ==- ' -^ 









1 Tiililnllnlf ill ■IrlWi ill' iiiMlB ilti iiffiT^"."7'~".'^'' 





••Gardening is both a science and an art. It em- 
braces the knowledge and use of all the aliments of the 
vegetable kingdom, that serve, or may serve the want^, 
as well as the pleasures of mankind." 

Hence a good garden is very essential to every farm- 
er. It is conducive to health, comfort and profit. 


It is found that a light sandy loam is the best soil for 
a kitchen garden. This may be formed where the 
predominant soil is either clay, peat, or sand. A free 
marl is likewise well calculated for garden culture. — 
The addition of a moderate quantity of clay with the 
oxide of iron, is of much use in promoting fertility. 

It is fortunate, however, when a garden contains a 
variety of soils; as some vegetables require a dry, oth- 
ers a wet earth; some thrive best in a strong heavy soil, 
and others in a light sandy one, and I cannot point out 
any one species of land that will suit all vegetables; 
therefore the soil most congenial to the different plants, 
will be described under their respective heads hereafter. 
49 E 



Preparing the soil and trenching it to a proper depth, 
is not always sufficiently attended to in gardening. — 
The soil ought to be from one foot and a half to two 
feet and a half deep, particularly where tap-rooted vege- 
tables arc cultivated. The roots can thus with greater 
facility extend their fibres in all directions, in search of 
vegetable nourishment, and a reservoir is provided for 
any superabundant moisture which may be occasioned 
by heavy rains, where it is retained till it is wanted. — 
Where the ground is wet, draining is indispensable. 

Soils may be rendered more fit for answering the 
purposes of vegetation (especially in gardening) by 
pulverization; by consolidation; by exposure to the 
atmosphere; by alteration of their constituent parts: 
by changing their condition in respect to water; and by 
a change in the kinds of plants cultivated. All these 
improvements are independent of the application of 


H6t beds are things not merely of luxury, but of real 
utility, especially to farmers and gardeners who send 
their productions to market. Plants which are brought 
to maturity in the open air, may often be rendered fit 
for the table a month earlier in consequence of being 
sown and forwarded during the earlier stages of their 
existence in hot beds. The following is given in the 
New-England Farmer, as a good method of preparing 
hot beds. 

In the month of March, mark out your bed to the 
size of the frame you design to cover it, which is gen- 
erally six feet in length and three in breadth, covered 
with glass, set in sashes of twelve panes each, say of 7 
l)y 9 glass. The sashes should be hung with hinges 
upon the back side, to admit their being raised up or 
let down in front at pleasure. The front side of the 
Fashes to incline downwards from the back side, about 
^ix inches. The frame, or box, is tight upon ail four of 


its sides, and generally about twelve inches high in front, 
and eighteen inches on the back side. 

Dig your bed thus marked otf, and cover it with litter 
from the horse stable — stamp down your several layers, 
until your bed is raised to the height you wish— then 
cover the bed with a layer of rich earth from 6 to 12 
inches thick, and set on your frame; in 8 or 10 days it 
will generally be ready for planting, if the weather is 
mild. If the fermentation is too powerful, and the heat 
too active, give it air by raising the lights in your frame, 
until you have obtained a right temperature — (which 
you may observe by placing your hand upon the bed, 
or thrusting it into it.) You may then plant your early 
cucumbers, radishes, salads, &c. — those plants will soon 
come forward, and may be transplanted into other hot 
beds, not so powerful, or promiscuously into the garden, 
and covered with other small frames, of 1, 2, and 4 
panes of glass, according to circumstances, and the re- 
mainder may stand for use. These plants may be gen- 
erally brought to perfection about one month earlier 
than in open ground. 


These may be reduced to light sandy loam from old 
pastures. Strong loam approaching nearly to brick earth, 
from the same source. Peat earth from the surface of 
heaths or commons. Bog earth, from bogs or morasses. 
Vegetable earth, from the decayed leaves, stalks, cow 
dung, &c. Sand earth, sea sand, drift sand, or pow- 
dered stone, so as to be as free as possible from iron, 
lime, rubbish, and, lastly, common garden earth; there 
are no known plants that will not grow or thrive in one 
or other of these earths, alone, or mixed with some other 
earth, or with rotten dung, or leaves. 


1. The management of a garden (summarily speaking) 
consists in attention and application; the first should be 
of that wary and provident kind, as not only to do well 
in the present, but for the future; and the latter should 


be of that diligent nature as (willingly) never to defer 
that till to-morrow rvhieh may be done to-day. '^'^ 

2. Procrastination is of serious consequence to gar- 
rlening; and neglect of times and seasons will be fruitful 
of disappointment and complaint. It will often happen, 
indeed, that a gardener cannot do what he would ^ but 
if he does not do what he c«7i, he will be most justly 
blamed, and perhaps censured by none more than by 

3. Seed. "Let your seed be sucli as you would have 
your future crop — the best of the kind. As the largest 
animals produce the most profitable stock, so it is in 
vegetables; the largest seed of the kind, plump and 
sound, is the best, being well ripened, and kept from 
injuries of weather and insects. 

4. "Commonly speaking, 7iew seed is to be preferred 
to old, as grow ing more luxuriantly, and coming up the 
surer and quicker. As to the age of seeds, at which 
they may be sown and germinate, it is uncertain, and 
depends much how they are preserved. 

5. "Seeds of cucumbers, melons, gourds, &c. whicli 
have thick, horny coverings, and the oil of the seed of a 
cold nature, will continue good for ten, fifteen, or even 
twenty years, unless they are kept in a very warm place, 
which will exhaust the vegetable nutriment in a twelve 
month; [three years for cucumbers, and four for melons^ 
is generally thought to be best, as they shoot less vigo- 
rously than new seeds, and become more fruitful.] 

6. "Oily seeds whose coats, though they are not so 
hard and close as the former, yet abounding with oil 
of a warmer nature, will continue good three or four 
years, as radish, turnip, rape, mustard, &c. Seeds of 
umbelliferious plants, Avhich are for the most part of a 
warm nature, lose their growing faculty in one, or at 
most two years, as parsley, carrots, parsneps, &c. 

7. Pease and beans of two years old are by some pre- 
ferred to new, as not likely to run to straw. Sowings 
should generally be performed on fresh dung or stirred 
ground. There is a nutritious moisture in fresh turned 
up soil, that softens the seed to swell and germinate 
quickly, and nourishes it with proper aliment to pro- 


ceed in its growth with vigor^ but which is evaporated 
soon after from the surface. 

8. Weeding. "Weeding in time is a material thing 
in culture, and stirring the ground about plants, as also 
earthing up when necessary, must be attended to. Brea- 
king the surface will keep the soil in health; for when 
it lies in a hard or bound state, enriching showers run 
off, and the salubrious air cannot enter. Weeds exhaust 
the strength of the ground, and if they are suffered to 
seed and sow themselves, may be truly called (as Mr. 
Evelyn speaks) gardcji sins. The hand and hoe are the 
instruments for the purpose. 

9. '^Digging, where the spade can go, between the 
rows of plants, is a good method of destroying weeds; 
and as it cuts off the straggling fibres of roots, they 
strike fresh in numerous new shoots, and are thus 
strengthened. Deep hoeing is a good practice, as it 
gives a degree of fertility to the earth. 

10. "The thinning of seedling crops (such as are de- 
signed to produce seed) is a very necessary thing to be 
done in time^ before the young plants have drawn one 
another up too much, by which they become weak and 
out of form, and sometimes never do well afterwards. 
All plants grow stronger, and ripen their juices better, 
when the air circulates freely round them, and the sun 
is not prevented from an immediate influence, an atten- 
tion to which should be paid from the first appearance 
of plants breaking ground. 

11. "In thinning c/o5e crops, as onions, carrots, tur- 
nips, &c. be sure they are not left too near; for instead 
of reaping a greater produce, there would surely be a 
less. When they stand too close, they will make tall 
and large tops, but are prevented swelling in their 
roots: better to err on \he wide side, for though there 
are fewer plants they are finer. 

12. "In setting out plants^ be sure to do it as early as 
may be, and always allow room enough for this work : 
being thus treated, vegetables will come forward sooner, 
larger, and of a superior flavor. These advantages are 
seen in all things, but in lettuces particularly, which often 
have not half the room allowed them that they require. 



13. ''Different sorts of plants^ intended for the producing 
of seed, ought not to be suffered to fower together, a caution 
dcsercing of attention. — In Ray's history of planting we 
have the following anecdote: One Richard Baal, a 
gardener at Brentford, sold a great quantity of caiili- 
tiowcr seed, which he raised in his own garden, to seve- 
ral gardeners in the suburbs of London, who carefully 
sowed the seed in good ground, but they produced no- 
thing but the common long leaf cabbage; for which rea- 
r-on they complained they were imposed upon, and 
commenced suit against the aforesaid Baal, in West- 
minster hall. 

14. "The judge's opinion was, that Baal must return 
the gardeners their money, and also make good their 
loss of time and crops. This cheat we ought not to lay 
to the poor gardener's charge, for it is wholly to be as- 
cribed to his good plants being impregnated by the 
common cabbage. 

15. Wherefore, if any one has an excellent cabbage, 
he ought not to let it flower on the same bed or beside 
any of an inferior sort, lest the good sort be impregna- 
ted with the dust (pollen, prepared in the male flower 
of plants) of the other, and the seeds produce a dege- 
nerate race." 

16. On the choice of seeds. The way to try the good- 
ness of seed, says Mr. Cobbett, is this, "Put a small 
quantity of it in htke-warm water, and let the water be 
four or five niches deep. A mug or basin will do, but 
a large glass tumbler is best, for then you can see the 
bottom as well as the top. 

17. "Some seeds, sucli as those of cabbage, radish, 
and turnip, will, if good, go to the bottom at once. Cu- 
cumber, melon, lettuce, endive, and many others, require 
a few minutes. Parsncp and carrot, and all the winged 
seeds require to be washed by your fingers in a little 
water, and well wetted, before you put them into the 
glass; and the carrot should be rubbed so as to get off 
part of the hairs, which would otherwise act as the fea- 
thers do to a duck. 

18. "The seed of the beet and mangel wurtzel are 
in a case or shell. The rough things that we sow are 


not the sccds^ but the cases in which the seeds are con- 
tained, each case containing from one to five seeds. 
Therefore, the trial by water is not conclusive as to 
these two seeds, though if the seed be very good, it will 
sink in water, after being in the glass an hour. 

19. ''And as it is a matter of such great importance 
that every seed should grow, where the plants stand so 
far apart; as gaps in roots of beets and mangel wurtzel 
are so very injurious, the best way is to reject all seeds 
that will not sink, case and all, after being put into 
warm water and remaining there an hour. 

20. "But seeds of all sorts, are, sometimes, if not 
always, part sound and part unsound ; and as the former 
are not to be rejected on account of the latter, the pro- 
portion of each should be ascertained, if a separation be 
not made. Count, then, a hundred seeds, taken pro- 
miscuously, and put them into water as before directed. 
If fifty sink and fifty swim, half your seed is bad and 
half is good; and so in proportion as to other numbers 
of sinkers and swimmers. 

21. "There may be plants the sound seeds of which 
will not sink^ but I know of none. If to be found in 
any instance, they would, I think, be found in those of 
the tulip tree, the ash, the birch and parsnep, all of 
which are furnished with a large portion of wing. — 
Yet all these if sound^ will sink, if put into warm water, 
with the wet worked a little into the wings first. I in- 
cline to the opinion, that we should try seeds as our 
ancestors tried witches: not by fire, but by water; and 
that following up their practice we should reprobate 
and destroy all that do not readily sink. 


It is very important that many kinds of seeds should 
be rolled in by a heavy roller, or by pressing the earth 
hard upon them by placing a board on the bed, and 
walking across it several times. Celery, spinage, onions, 
and many other kinds of garden seeds, will not vege- 
tate, unless the earth is pressed on them hard, or rolled 
after being sown. 


Most vegetables thrive better' to shift the ground al- 
ternately every year for different sorts, as each kind 
draws somewhat different nourishment, on the principle 
<Sf rotation of crops. Onions, however, are generally 
considered an exception to the rule. [For particular 
directions to germinate, see 1st. vol. Farmers' Reporter.] 


"Many persons, sensible of the utility, are often dis- 
couraged from constant attempts in cultivating a kitchen 
garden, because the}'^ have experienced some failures 
in particular plants. But there will never be a failure 
t}f vegetables enough for a family's use, if the following 
requisites be well guarded: — Richness of soil; due care 
in the selection of seeds, as already directed: proper 
cultivation; and a sutiicient variety of vegetables, that 
'if one kind fails, another may be a substitute. 

"It is a general complaint among persons who pay 
only little attention to their garden, that the seed often 
fail. This usually happens because due care is not 
taken in discriminating between ripe and unripe seed; 
between blighted and sound seed, and by inattention to 
the necessary rules for germination. 

"Our gardens do not generally present variety enough 
to be profitable and convenient \o the owner, through- 
out the whole year, even if all the planting succeeds. — 
There is frequently no provision for the winter, and 
many a long month, when the vegetable kingdom is 
locked in frost, is passed with no variety on our tables, 
to excite the languid appetite, or satisfy that which is 
pleased with rotation. But surely it is as easy to store 
our cellars with the beet, the carrot, the onion, the pars- 
nep, and vegetable oyster, as with the dull monotony of 
thepotatoc; and however nutritious the potatoc be, still 
its utiHty cannot be hostile to the claims of other, pro- 
ductions of the garden. 

"We do not invite the plough-boy from the Utility of 
his farm, to the pleasures of a garden; we do not wish 
him to sacrifice his grain fields to the culture of a tulip 
bod; but we wish to call his attention to the utility, 


coH-Denience, and economy^^ that can be found in the culti- 
vaiion of a substantial kitchen garden^ from which his 
healthful family can draw many of those really innocent 
luxuries, which a bountiful Providence has, with so 
lavish a hand, spread around him." 

When your fence is put in good order, select a proper 
place for the small kind of fruit shrubs, as gooseberries, 
currants, and raspberries; for although you admit no 
trees within this inclosure, these useful shrubs must have 
a place. They should not be planted around the fences, 
nor through the centre of the garden, as is too commonly 
the practice, but in a continued plantation, that they 
may have suitable attention, and yet not obstruct the 

Gooseberries require a deep and rich soil. The 
ground between the rows must be well manured, and 
kept free from weeds, and you should be careful to 
plant none but those that are of a good kind. 

A good mode of propagating gooseberries, is by cut- 
tings or layers. For cuttings, take shoots of the last 
year's growth, from shrubs that are known to bear a 
choice fruit. Let them be at least ten inches long; cut 
off all the buds, except three or four at the tops, and 
insert the stems six or eight inches into the earth; tread 
the ground firmly around, and keep them free from 
weeds. When they have grown here a year or two, 
they should be removed to the plantation as soon as the 
frost is out of the ground in the spring, or in the au- 
tumn, which is, particularly for the gooseberry, the best 

Currants may be propagated in the same way. They 
are, however, more hardy, and do not require so rich a 
soil. They should be placed in rows, six or eight feet 
apart, and kept free from weeds. Between these rows, 
you may raise a crop of dwarf or bush beans, (take care 
that there are no runners, or vines among them,) without 
the least injury to the shrubs, for several years. 

There is great choice in currants, as well as in other 
fruit; select only the large red and white currant, for 
no art will change the original nature of the fruit. 


although, by skilful cultivation, the quality may be 

The gooseberr}- and currant both claim the farmers 
attention, and are much wanted in every family. They 
furnish a cheap and early sauce, and the latter a wine 
equal to the best Lisbon or Teneriffe. 

As you will doubtless wish to plant other trees, and 
be desirous to know the best season for that work, I 
would observe, as a general rule, that all kinds of trees 
or shrubs should be moved or set in the spring, as soon, 
at least, as the buds begin to swell. The apple tree, 
the cherry, and plum, will grow, if set with art, when 
the leaves begin to open, but not with health and vigor. 



To accomplish this, it is necessary to facilitate their 
mode of nutrition, by removing all obstacles to the 
progress of the plant. These obstacles may either ex- 
ist under or above the surface; and hence the origin of 
draining, clearing from the surface, incumbrances, and 
.the various operations, as digging, ploughing, &c. for 
pulverising the soil. It is necessary, or at least advan- 
tageous to supply food artificially; and hence the origin 
and benefit of manuring. All organised matters are 
capable of being converted into the food of plants; but 
the best manure for ameliorating the quality, and yet 
retaining the peculiar chemical properties of plants, 
must necessarily be decayed plants of their own 

It is true that plants do not differ greatly in their 
primary principles, and that a supply of any descrip- 
tion of putrescent manure will cause all plants to 
thrive; but some plants, such as wheat and rye, contain 
pecuhar substances as gluten and phosphate of lime, 
and some manures, as those of animals or decayed wheat 
and rye, containing the same substances, must necessa- 
rily be a better food or manure for such plants. The 
regulation of moisture demands attention; for when the 
soil is pulverised, it is more easily dried by the penetra- 


tion of the air; where an increase of food is suppHed, 
the medium through which that food is taken up by the 
plant should be increased; and when the temperature 
is increased, evaporation becomes greater. 

Hence the advantage of watering by surface or 
subterraneous irrigation, manual supplies to the root^ 
showering over the leaves, steaming the surrounding' 
atmosphere, &c. 

TO inchease the number, and improve the quality 


It is necessary in this case, to remove such parts of 
the vegetable as are not wanted, as the blooms of bul- 
bous or tuberous rooted plants, when the bulbs are to be 
increased, and the contrary. Hence the important op- 
erations of pruning, ringing, cutting off large roots, &c. 
It may be said that this is not nature, but art; man, 
though an improving animal is still in a state of nature, 
and all his practices in every stage of civilization are as 
natural to him, as those of the other animals are to them; 

To form new varieties of vegetables, as well as of 
flowers and useful plants of every description, it is ne- 
cessary to take advantage of their sexual differences, 
and to operate in a manner analagous to crossing the 
breed of animals. Hence the origin of new sortfe of 
fruits, grains, and roots. New varieties or rather sub- 
varieties are formed by altering the habits of plants, by 
dwarfing through want of nourishment, variegating by 
arencious soils, &c. 


In doing this, we should have recourse to the different 
modes of propagating by extension. Thus choice ap- 
ples and tree fruits could not be perpetuated by sowing 
their seed, which experience has shown, would produce 
progeny more or less different from the parent, but they 
are preserved and multiplied by grafting; others such 
as the pine apple, by cuttings or suckers; choice car- 
nations by layers; potatoes by cuttings of the tubers, 
&:c. But approved varieties of vegetables are in general. 


multiplied and preserved by selecting seeds from the 
finest specimens and paying suitable attention to their 


This is effected by destroying or rendering dormant 
the principle of life, and by warding off as far as prac- 
ticable the progress of chemical decomposition. Where 
vegetables or fruits are gathered for use or preservation, 
the air of the atmosphere which surrounds them is con- 
tinually depriving them of carbon and forming carbonic 
acid gas. 

The water they contain, by its softening qualities, 
weakens the affinity of their elements and best produces 
the same effect, by dilating their parts, promoting the 
decomposing effect both of air and water. 

Hence, drying in the sun or in ovens, is one of the 
most obvious modes of preserving vegetables for use as 
food, or for other purposes, but not for growth, if the 
drying process is carried so far as to destroj^ the principle 
of life in the seeds, roots, or sections of the shoots of lig- 
neous plants. Potatoes, turnips, and other esculent 
roots may be preserved from autumn till the following 
summer, by drying them in the sun, and burying them 
in perfectly dry soil, which shall be at the same time at 
a temperature but a few degrees above the freezing 
point. Corn may be preserved for many years, by first 
thoroughly drying it in the sun, and then burying it in 
dry, cool pits, and closing them so as to exclude the 
atmospheric air. The corn is thus presen ed from de- 
composition, from insects, or vegetation. The Romans 
preserved their corn in this way for many years in 
chambers hewn out of dry rock. 




ARTICHOKE — Aftichaut. 

It should be planted in April and May, in fine rich 
earth, three-fourths of an inch deep. In the course of 
the season, cauliflowers, spinach, lettuce, &c. can be 
sown between the rows. In the after culture, keep it 
free from weeds by hoeing between the rows, which 
should be about five feet apart, with the plants two feet 
asunder in the row. 

This, with occasional waterings in the dry weather 
of summer, is all the culture which they require. 

ASPARAGUS — Asperge. 

This delicious esculent vegetable, after due prepara- 
tion of the ground, is easily cultivated. It requires a 
rich sandy loam, well manured to the depth of two and 
a half feet, and raised one foot above the alleys: — then, 
in addition, a good quantity of manure, well trenched in, 
fifteen inches below the surface. A plantation of one 
square rod is little enough for a family; and to plant 
this requires about one quart of seed. It should be 
sown in April or May, or three weeks before frosts in 
autumn, in rows, nine inches distant. That which is 
sown in the fall, should be well littered to nearly a foot 
thick, to protect the tender plants through the first win- 
ter. Let the crop, the first and second year, and nearly 
all the third year, run up to seed. Water it occasion- 
ally till the third or fourth year — loosen the ground 
every spring before budding, with a proper fork, and 
keep it clean of weeds during the season. At the ap- 
proach of winter, cover it with a layer of dung to the 
depth of an inch or more. 

In the third or fourth year, according to the perfec- 
tion of the plants, cut the shoots for use, three inches 



below the surface, as often as they spring up, till the 
twentieth of June, then let them run up to seed. This 
method will afford good crops for ten or twelve years at 
least. — The seed is best preserved in the berry. 

In addition to the agreeable flavor, and nutritious 
quality of this plant, it is thought to be a good palliative, 
or remedy in the gravel. 

BEANS — Feve, 

English Dwarfs, — Plant in February or March — the 
great object is to get them into the ground as early as 
possible; whenever the frost intermits, and the earth is 
workable, do not lose the opportunity. A strong heavy 
soil is most suitable. The broad Windsor and nonpareil 
are best for the table. Plant in rows, two feet and a 
half apart, three or four inches distant in the row, and 
about the same deep, which will preserve them through 
any subsequent frost. Use a dibble with a blunt end to 
make a wider aperture for each bean, to admit it down 
to the bottom without any hollow below. Pinch the 
tops off when in bloom, otherwise they will run too 
much to flower, and have but few pods. They will be 
fit for the table in June. Gather them when quite 
young. Shell them, and boil in plenty of water with a 
little salt, add a few stalks of spear mint (mentha vii'idis) 
which gives them a fine flavor. Serve up with melted 

Kidney dwarfs or snaps — Haricot, — Plant about the 
latter end of April for a first crop, in rich well bro- 
ken ground, and at intervals through the season — they 
Avill be fit for the table in about six weeks from the 
time of planting. The Mohawk is the earliest and har- 
diest, and will even bear a slight frost without injury. 
The Quaker Bean and Warrington are fine sorts, and 
the Refugee is well known for long bearing. Sow in 
rovrs from two to three feet apart, drop the beans be- 
tween two and three inches distant, and cover them 
about an inch. The dwarf is a native of India, and 
the runner of South America. 


When pulled for cooking, cut off the stalk end first, 
and then turn to the point and strip off the strings. If 
not quite fresh, have a howl of spring water, with a 
little salt dissolved in it, and as the beans are cleaned 
and stringed, throw them in. Then put them on the 
fire in boiling water, with some salt in it; when they 
are tender, which will be in about fifteen or twenty 
minutes, pour them into a colander to drain. They 
should always be cooked young, and then the best 
method is to keep them whole, as it preserves their deli- 
cate flavor and color. When a little more grown, they 
must be cut across in two after stringing. 

Pole or running — Haricots a rames, — If your soil is 
poor, make it rich. Plant in hills about four ^cat apart 
each way, leaving three beans to a hill, during the se- 
cond and third week of May. They are extremely 
productive, and yield till stopped by the cold weather. 

BENE PLANT. — Scsamum orientale. 
This was introduced into the Southern States by the 
negroes from Africa. It abounds in many parts of 
Africa. Sonnini and Brown, travellers in Egjpt, say it 
is much cultivated there for the purpose of feeding 
horses, and for culinary purposes. The negroes in 
Georgia boil a handful of the seeds Avith their allowance 
of Indian Corn. Probably no plant yields a larger pro- 
portion of oil, which Dr. Cooper of Philadelphia has 
pronounced equal to the finest olive oil. But it is 
worthy of cultivation in the Northern States principally 
as a medicinal plant. A gentleman in Virginia has 
given Messrs. Thornburn &l Son the following account 
of its virtues. '• It requires to be sown early in April, 
at a distance of about one foot apart. A few leaves of 
the plant, when green, plunged a few times in a tumbler 
of water, makes it like a thin jelly, without taste or 
color, which children afflicted with the summer com- 
plaint will drink freely, and is said to be the best 
rem.edy ever discovered. It has been supposed, that 
(under Providence) the lives of three hundred children 
were saved by it last summer in Baltimore, and I know 


the efficacy of it by experience in my own family."-^ 
This plant will throw out a greater profusion of leaves, 
by breaking off the top when it is about half grown. 

BEET. — Betterave. 

Sow from the middle of May to June in drills a foot 
apart — thin out the plants to about eight inches. Have 
your ground rich and dig it deep. The plants will be 
fit to use during the summer, and must be taken up 
about the end of October. Trim the tops off, and put 
them away in the cellar. 

Beets are highly recommended for fattening cattle, 
and are used by some people like other vegetables to 
all kinds of meat; but they are most suitable to corned 
and roast beef. They are also used as a pickle, and 
form a beautiful garnish. 

The red beet is a native of the Sea Coast of the 
South of Europe. 

The Sir John Sinclair Beet is a luxuriant growing 
variety. The IcavcG are from two and a half to three 
feet in length, and can be frequently cropped; at the 
same time care must be taken not to injure the centre 
or crown of the plant; they are as tender as lettuce, and 
can be boiled and served up like spinage, which they 
excel. Sow and cultivate like the common Beet. — 
They come early to maturity, continue thrifty through- 
out the season, and are remarkable for standing the 
severest drought. 

The Mangel Wurtzel is the Beta-cicla of the family 
of the Beet, sometimes called the Root of Scarcity, 
and likewise called the White Sugar Beet, much cele- 
brated in England and Prussia. The following are the 
directions for its field culture: Time of sowing, months 
of April and May. Prepare a plot or field, as for tur- 
nips or potatoes; open two drills with the plough, two 
ie^t apart, and put in a sufficient quantity of dung, ac- 
cording to the ground; then cover the dung with the 
plough twice, by ridging them up as high as can be 
well done, with a man shovelling between the drillf 
right and left, smoothing the surface of the ridge above 


the dung, which will leave a space of ten or twelve 
inches broad. This complete method of v>'ill 
repay the trouble of shovelling, by raising a full pro- 
portion of earth under the roots. After sowing, it 
should be well rolled, which completes the whole pro- 
cess. The crop to be afterwards treated the same as 
that of turnips or potatoes, by putting and taking off 
mould, &c. After the roots have been raised, tlie 
ground is in a remarkable fine situation for v/lieat or 
any other crop: sow three pounds per acre. 

Domestic animals eat the leaves and roots v/ith great 
avidity: both are good for feeding swine, and are not 
less eagerly devoured than corn. They are excellent 
for milch cows, and possess the quality of making them 
give a large quantity of the best flavoured milk. 

BORECOLE. — Brassica olcracea selenisia. 
Sown in May.— Valuable for winter and spring greens, 
when the frost is not too pov»^erful for it. It is generally 
recommended to transplant them into trenches, and 
cover them with straw before winter, that the heads 
may be cut off as wanted. In spring, plant out the 
stems, which send forth delicious sprouts. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. — Brassictt olcracea var. 

This is an open headed cabbage; grows very high, 
and produces a great quantity of excellent sprouts in 
spring. To be sown in May, and treated like cabbages; 
should be covered in the fall. 

BROCCOLI — Chou Broccoli, 

The Broccoli generally succeeds well in our climate ; 
and is a very delicious vegetable, resem.bling the 
cauliflower. The seed should be sown the last of May 
for a full late crop. In July plant them out in rows, 
two and a half feet apart, on a rich soil. Thc>' will 
flower in October. The earlier planted ones will flow- 
er in August and September. If any of the late plants 



should not flower before frost sets in, take them care- 
fully up, and plant them in a warm cellar; they will 
ilower before spring. 


Sow your seed in September, (in frames,) March and 
April, in the open air for early sorts, in May, for late. 
For transplanting, if you can, choose warm showery 
weather: and if the plants wilt down very much, water 
them at evening, with rain water, or any other water 
that has been kept through the day, in a tub, or bucket, 
so as to be sufficiently warmed. And it may be well 
to observe here, once for all, that in watering plants, 
the water should never be poured down in a large 
stream or flood about the roots, as this would serve to 
wash away from them the surrounding earth and the 
nourishment they need, but should be turned through 
a sieve, or watering pot, sparingly at once, but repea- 
ted several times, till the surrounding earth is suffi- 
ciently moistened; — and this operation should be gene- 
rally performed at evening, that the plants may have 
the benefit of not having the water too soon evapora- 
ted by the sun. 

The ground should be often stirred. It may be un- 
necessary to mention, that with this, as with all other 
vegetables, the best seed is obtained from the best 
plants; they should therefore be selected; — and care 
must be taken not to place them too near those of an 
inferior variety, as the seed may thereby become adul- 
terated. The seed will keep good six or eight years. 

N. B. When cabbages are inclined to go to seed 
without heading, grasp the stalks and start the roots a 
little by pulling up: this vrill cause them to produce 

Cow CABBAGE — Brassicu olcracea. — This plant is of 
recent introduction into this country. It should be 
cultivated in the same manner as the common cab- 
bage. [For its valuable properties, see 1st vol. Far- 
mers' Reporter.] 


CARROT — Carotte, 

The Earlv Horn and Orang-e are esteemed best for 
family use. The directions for beets will answer for 
carrots, only leave the plants four inches apart in the 
rows. Sow from April to July, in a light, mellow, and 
sandy soil, dig one or two spades deep. The orange 
and red sorts require a soil deeper than the horn carrot. 

The carrot is common by the road side in many parts 
of Britain ; and once upon a time the ladies there wore 
carrot leaves instead of feathers. A curious chimney 
ornament can be formed by cutting off a section from 
the head of a carrot which contains the bud, and pla- 
cing it in a shallow vessel of water. "Young and 
delicate leaves unfold themselves, forming a radiated 
tuft, of a very handsome appearance." 

It is used in soups and stews, and as a vegetable diet 
to boil with beef or mutton. 


Sow about the middle of September in an open bor- 
der, and give moderate waterings if the weather be dry. 
About the end of October transplant into a good frame, 
after cutting otf the long tap roots with a sharp knife, 
and put the plants four inches apart each way. Water 
gently, put on the lights, and shade them a few days. 
Before the cold weather sets in, apply a good outside 
lining of horse dung round the frame; and when it be- 
comes severe, the frame must be covered with boards 
and salt hay, or bags, or straw mats, sufficient to keep 
out the frost. Admit air and light freely, to prevent 
the plants being drawn up weak, at the same time you 
must be careful not to freeze them. In soft mild days 
take off the lights entirely. Towards the middle of 
March, the weather will probably allow of the frame 
being fully exposed every day, but run the sash on when 
it storms, and cover the frame at night when frosty. 
About the tenth of April, prepare the fnial beds for the 
plants to liower in, by digghig and manuring them well. 
The ground need not be raked, if it be well broken and 
dug level, as raking is apt to make it crust over. Wa- 


ter a little before transplanting, if the weather be dry, 
and raise each plant with a ball of earth, which you 
must take great care not to break, as it is of great im- 
portance to the success of the cauliflower that its growth 
should not be checked at this period. Plant two feet 
or two feet and a half apart each way. "Should any 
of the plants be attacked by the black grub-worm, exa- 
mine them every morning for ten or twelve days; and 
when any of them are cut off, search for the worm near 
the plant, and kill it, as it will be found within two oi 
three inches of the stem, and half an inch below the 
surface; then replace the plant. If you suffer them 
to escape, they will gather strength and quickly destroy 
a whole planting." 

This vegetable is extremely delicate, and is esteemed 
equal to young peas and the Lima bean. However, a 
great deal depends upon the cooking, and its excellence 
may be destroyed by an ignorant or careless manner of 
preparing it for the table. Cut when close and white, 
and of the middle size; trim otf some of the outside 
leaves; cut the stalk off flat at the bottom, and let it 
lie in salt and water a little while. Put it into boiling 
water with a handful of salt in it; have plenty of water, 
and keep the vessel uncovered; skim the water well; a 
small cauliflower will take about fifteen minutes and a 
large one twenty: take it up as soon as a fork will enter 
the stem easily, a minute or two longer boiling will 
spoil it. Eat it with the gravy from the meat, or with 
melted butter. 

CUCUMBER — Coucomhre. 

The best kinds for early planting are the early frame, 
green cluster, and long prickly. Plant in the open 
ground, about the first week of May, in hills four feet 
apart, both for the general crop and for the pickling 
sorts; make the ground rich with vegetable mould and 
rotted cow dung, and leave only one good plant in each 
hill. If the provoking yellow fly attacks your plants, 
examine them frequently, and throw tobacco dust or 
soot round the vines. Some recommend to nip oflf the 


first runner bud, which causes them to grow more stocky 
and become more fruitful plants. Keep them clear of 
weeds, and give plenty of water in warm dry weather. 
We would suggest whether it would not be advanta- 
geous to grow the cucumber in a little concavity or 
hollow, as water could then be effectively applied in 
warm weather. Give water at any time of the day if 
necessary. Cobbett ridicules the idea of impregnating 
the female blossom with the male, and he is sometimes 
right; though it is a practice followed by many of the 
best English gardeners. 

CELERY — Celeri. 

Sow about the middle of April, in a rich, moist soil; 
if not rich, make it so by mixing in fresh vegetable 
mould or short well rotted manure. Dig deep, and rake 
it fine and smooth. Sow the seed liberally all over the 
surface, and beat the bed evenly and firmly with a clean 
spade; then sift on a covering of a quarter of an inch 
of earth, and it will vegetate as soon as cabbage seed. 

The following directions for its after culture, are 
given by Mr. Fessenden in his "New American Gar- 

"When either the plants left in the seed-bed, or those 
removed, are from six to twelve inches high, or when 
the latter have acquired a stocky growth, by four or five 
week's nurture in the intermediate bed, transplant them 
into trenches for blanching. For this purpose allot an 
open compartment. Mark out the trenches a foot wide, 
and from three to three and a half distant; dig out 
each trench lengthwise ten or twelve inches in width, 
and a light spit deep, that is, six or eight inches. Lay 
the earth dug out equally on each side of the trench; 
put about three inches of very rotten dung into the 
trench, then pare the sides, and dig the dung and pa- 
rings with an inch or two of the loose mould at the 

Trim the tops and roots of the plants, and then set 
them in single rows along the middle of each trench, 
allowing four or five inches distance from plant to plant. 


When this work is finished, give the plants water in 
plenty, and occasionally water them from time to time, 
if the weather he dry, and likewise let them he shaded 
till they strike root and begin to grow. When they 
have grown to the height of eight or ten inches, draw 
earth to each side of them, breaking it fine. This 
should be done in dry weather, being careful not to 
bury the hearts. Repeat the earthing once in ten days, 
till the plants are fit for use. Be careful, however, not 
to draw up too much earth to the plants at first, lest they 
be smothered; and leave them in a little hollow, that 
they may receive the full benefit of the waterings, 
rain, tSic." 

Care should be taken when earthing, not to do it 
when the ground is wet. It should be done in the after 
part of a dry day, for if the earth be wet the celery will 
rust. Instead of earthing up once in ten days, as re- 
commended above, I would suggest the propriety of 
having it done as often as twice in a week at least. 
This will subdue the weeds and nourish the plants more 
than the former process. 

CRESS GARDEN. — Lcpiduim sativum. 

This vegetable is raised from seed, of which one 
ounce is sufficient for a bed four feet square. 

"Sow the seed very thick, and earth over very light- 
ly, or just thinly cover. Give occasional waterings in 
dry weather.-' 

To gather cress in perfection, cut the plants when 
moderately young, either quite down to the roots, or only 
the tops of those most advanced. They will shoot 
again for future gathering, but the leaves will be 
hotter, and not so mild and tender as those of younger 


They require an improved clay soil, somewhat moist. 
It should be well dug up two ieci deep — then set the 
thrifty sprouts of last year's growth, eight inches deep 
and two feet apart; cut cfF the tops so as to leave but 


three or four buds above the ground. Keep the roots 
free from suckers and grass, and you will soon have 
currants enough to make your own wine, for which the 
following, by Dr. Green, is a good receipt: 

Take clean ripe currants, bruise and press out the 
juice and add twice as much water. To every gallon 
of this mixture add three and a fourth pounds of clean 
sugar, and one gill of brandy — also, one-fourth of an 
ounce of pulverized alum — put the whole into a clean 
cask; and in March draw off, and add another gill of 
brandy to each gallon. This wine is excellent, and 
improves by age. 


Sow in July, and when four or six inches high, trans- 
plant into ground in fine order, in rows fifteen inches 
apart each way. They must be hoed and kept clear 
the same as lettuce, and where the soil is high and dry, 
earth them up half way; but if moist, merely tie 
them. The two curled sorts, if neatly earthed up, will 
blanch pretty well without being tied, but the Bata- 
vian, from its loftier, looser growth, hearts and blanches 
better with a bandage. This must be done when 
nearly full grown, and when the leaves are dry; tie 
moderately tight near the top with a piece of bass mat. 
By thus excluding the light from the inner leaves, they 
become blanched, crisp, tender, and fit for use. 

The endive is a hardy annual, and a native of China 
and Japan. It is used in salads and stews. 

The root of the wild endive is very wholesome and 
nutritious. It is highly esteemed in France, and forms 
a prominent ingredient in producing the very superior 
flavor of continental coffee. The aromatic and vola- 
tile qualities of coffee are, by the combination of this 
root, rendered more mellow and full upon the palate, 
and its fragrance greatly increased, producing an 
agreeable tonic and most exhilarating beverage. 

Sow in drills in April, about a foot and a half apart, 
and thin out to seven or eight inches distance in the 
row. In the fall take up the root, dry and grind it, 
and use two ounces of the powder to a pound of coffee. 



Sow in hot beds in March, in the open air in May. 
They should be raised about two feet asunder, with a 
little earth drawn up round their stems; when about a 
foot high, they will produce plenty of fruit, of most 
beautiful appearance. When sliced and nicely fried, 
with ham, &c. they are esteemed as a delicious vegeta- 
ble. It is difficult, however, to make the seed vegetate 
in the open air — should always be started in hot beds. 

FENNEL — Ancthum Faeniailum, 
The earth for this plant should be light. Sow as 
early in the spring as the ground gets warm, in drills 
from six to twelve inches apart, or scatter the seed 
broadcast and rake them in. "When the plants are 
three or four inches high, thin or transplant a quantity 
fifteen inches apart. They will produce immediately 
leaves for present supply, and in continuance; or for an 
immediate larger supply of leaves you may procure 
some established full roots, and plant as above: let them 
be well watered. 

"The tender stalks of common Fennel are used in 
salads; the leaves, boiled, enter into many fine sauces; 
and raw, and garnishes for several dishes. The 
blanched stalks are good with oil, vinegar, and pepper, 
as a cold salad." 

GOOSEBERRY — Vitra grosidaria. 
Plant the cuttings in the fall just before they cast 
their leaves. Wine is made from gooseberries, in the 
same manner as from currants, only using one-third 
less sugar. The unripe fruit may be kept in bottles of 
water, in a cool place, till winter. 

KALE — Chou d Ecosse, 

The Sea Kale grows spontaneously on many parts of 

the seacoast of England. The inhabitants seek for it 

in the spring, and remove the pebbles or sand with 

which it is usually covered to the depth of several 


inches, and cut off the young and tender leaves and 
stalks, as yet unexpandcd, and in a blanched state, close 
to the crown of the root. 

It is easily raised in the interior — is very hardy — 
grows in almost any dry soil — is perennial, and costs but 
little labor, and may be raised from the seed or the root; 
(if raised from the seed^ it should be cracked before plant- 
ings or, what is much better, plant the new seed in 
October^ as soon as ripe^ when they will grow freely — the 
seed is hard to vegetate, if kept till spring.) Fifty 
plants, occupying a very small space, will supply a 
family. In its taste it resembles the cauliflower. The 
only labor it requires, is to cover it with sand or earth, 
with pots or boxes, in March, to blanch it, or make it 
white. If not blanched, it is not so beautiful to the eye, 
or so tender, or so delicate to the taste, as if blanched. 
It should be very thoroughly boiled^ and is better if boiled 
in milk and water. It should be served up, like cauli- 
flower, with melted buttei*. It comes in at a season 
when our vegetables in this country are very deficient. 
Sown in April and May, and in October, (with the nevf 
seed,) as above directed. 

LETTUCE — Laitue* 
This requires a rich mellow soil. A bed four by ten 
ieet requires one fourth of an ounce of seed. Sow in 
any or every month from the opening of spring till Au- 
gust. It may be sown broadcast, or in drills with the 
rows from twelve to fifteen inches distant ; or it may be 
sown with any young perennials, that stand far enough 

MELON — Melon, 
Of these there are many varieties of each, all re- 
quiring nearly the same culture; — they should be planted 
remote from cucumbers, squashes, gourds and pumpkins, 
to prevent adulteration and degeneracy. Seed is best 
after it has been kept two years. It will grow if twenty 
years old, — and it should be carried in the pocket a week 
or two before planting. 


It requires an unexhausted loam, not too light. In 
May dig up a piece well exposed to the sun, and lay it 
off in squares of six feet — at the angles dig holes twelve 
inches deep and eighteen inches over, into these put six 
or eight inches of well rotted dung, and mix it well 
with some of the earth, — draw the remainder of the 
earth over to form hills of a foot across; then plant 
seven or eight seeds in each hill, two inches apart, and 
cover them half an inch deep. When they have grown, 
so that you can be sure of two or three that will stand, 
pull the rest out — draw the earth from time to time as 
high as the seed leaves. It may be well to bury every 
fourth or fifth joint to take new roots. When the young 
melons are as large as walnuts, put under them shin- 
gles, or boards, to keep them dry and warm — they will 
be better for it. 

MUSTARD — Sinapis, 

The white, for salad or greens, should be sown in the 
fore part of the season, in warm sunny places. In mid- 
summer it should be sown in sandy ground. It should 
be planted in flat drills, from three to six inches apart, 
and covered half an inch deep. 

Black mustard is sown in the field in March or April 
for the mill, in drills from six to twelve inches asunder, 
or it may be sown broadcast and raked or harrowed in. 
When two or three inches high, it should be hoed and 
thinned out. It ripens in July or August. 

NASTRiUM — Capucine. 
This is deserving of cultivation on account of its 
beautiful orange colored flowers, its excellence in 
salads, and its use in garnishing dishes. The grain, 
berries, or seeds of this plant, which it produces 
abundantly, make an estimable pickle: in the opinion 
of many preferable to capers. It is sown in drills in 
April and May, nearly an inch deep. When about six 
inches high, it should have sticks placed to climb 
upon, or they may be planted by the side of fences, 
palings, &c. 


OKRA- — Gomho, 
Sown in the beginning of INIay — used as an ingre- 
dient in soups, and is a beautiful ornamental plant. It 
is cultivated extensively in the West Indies. Its ripe 
seeds burned and used like coffee, can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished therefrom. It should be planted an inch 
deep, and hoed two or three times like pease. 

ONION — Allium cepa. 

For onions a rich mellow soil is best; and they may 
be sown on the same ground, if well manured, many 
times in succession. Rotten dung mixed with ashes, 
soot, or pulverised charcoal makes the best manure for 
this vegetable. After soAving, spread over ashes and 
sand, and roll or flat down the beds with a spade, or 
board as already directed. The beds should be raised 
three or four inches above the alleys, and sown in drills, 
twelve inches apart, as soon as the ground is dry enough 
to work in the spring; — they should stand three or four 
inches distant in the drills. For early onions sow the 
last of August for next spring's crop. And in the 
spring, as soon as they are large enough, draw them 
out for use, till July; and let those that remain till that 
time, run up to seed. 

The beds should be kept clean and loose. Keep the 
manure near the surface, where the roots can reach it. 
If the tops grow too fast they maj^ be broken down. — 
When they are pulled they should be laid in the sun, 
and often turned for five or six days to dry. Then if 
they are roped up, and kept dry and cool, they will be 
best preserved. 

A few leaves of parsley eaten with vinegar, will cor- 
rect bad breath from onions. 

The Top or Tree Onion has the remarkable property 
of producing the onions at the top of the stalk — and is 
valuable for domestic use, particularly for pickling, in 
which they are excellent, and superior in flavor to the 
common kinds. It is also used for any other purpose 
that onions usually are. It is perennial and propagated 
by planting the bulbs in spring or autumn, either the 


root bulbs, or those on the top of the stalks. The 
latter if planted in spring, as directed for the other 
kinds, will produce very fine, handsome sized onions of 
excellent flavor. The root bulbs increase greatly by 
offsets, and should be taken up once in every two or 
three years, when the stems decay in autumn, and re- 
planted again to produce a supply of top bulbs. 

The Potatoe Onion is of late introduction into our 
country. It possesses the singular property of produ- 
cing from one onion, six or seven in a clump, under 
ground, similar to potatoes. It partakes of the mild- 
ness of the onion of Portugal, grows very large, and is 
easily cultivated. Prepare your land in the best man- 
ner, and plant out one onion in a hill, the hills to be 
one and a half feet apart. The ground should be fre- 
quently hoed about them. It does not produce seed as 
other onions, but is increased by the root. 


To raise a crop of potatoes, authors and practical 
men are not agreed, as to the propriety of cutting the 
potatoes for planting. Some prefer to plant them 
whole, however large, while others advise to cut off 
the watery, or seed end, as it would run too much to 
vines, or haulm, and to reject the dry, or root end, as 
too tardy in its growth; and to cut the remainder of 
the tuber, into pieces of one eye; and to plant the eyes 
uppermost. But this seems to be an unnecessary waste 
of seed. Better cut the whole potato into pieces, or 
plant it whole, or even cut off the watery half, or seed 
end for planting, and use what remains for the table. — 
After cutting, let them be dried in the sun, or wet and 
rolled in plaster. For early potatoes plant the largest — 
the smallest will do for a late crop, if they are planted 
in good season. 

Let the ground be ploughed deep and trenched, or 
furrowed two feet apart, then plant your seed, from 
eight inches to a foot apart, one piece in a place, on 
long dung, and cover them six inches with earth. — Hoe 
them two or three times before they blossom, and not 


afterwards. When you raise your crop, let the sun 
shine on them as httle as possible: if it turns them 
green they are poison. They should be kept as cool as 
may be without freezing, and somewhat moist. 


Plant them in a hot-bed early in April, about three 
inches deep. When the sprouts are three or four 
inches above ground, part them from the potatoe, and 
set them into hills properly manured, and raised a little 
above the surface. The seed-potato, if left in the 
ground, will continue for some time to furnish sprouts. 

Good crops of sweet potatoes may be raised in the 
neighborhood of Lat. 40. by a little attention to the 
nature of the plant. Sweet potatoes are produced from 
the joints of the vine, and not from the old potato. To 
make them fruitful these joints must be covered with 
earth, and the potato forms there. 

The best method of cultivation is as follows: — Some 
time in April make a hot bed of horse manure about 
eighteen inches thick; on the manure put three inches 
of earth; on this earth plant the seed potatoes three 
inches apart, and cover them four inches deep with 

When the sprouts are three inches above the ground, 
draw them out with the hand, and transplant them (aa 
you would cabbage plants) in soft rich ground, in rows 
four feet apart, and put the plants about a foot apart in 
the rows. Keep them clear of weeds until the vines 
begin to cover the ground, after which they are left to 

If the hot-bed is made early in April, the early 
sprouts will be ready for transplanting early in May. 
The bed will continue to throw up a second and third 
succession of sprouts, all of which will afford good po- 
tatoes, if planted out any time before the end of June. 
A hot-bed five feet square, with half a peck of seed 
potatoes, will produce a succession of sprouts, sufficient 
to yield about fifteen bushels of sweet potatoes. 



PA RSLEY — PersiL 
8own from April to August. Parsley seed seldom 
vegetates under live weeks after sowing; it is recom- 
mended to soak the seed twelve hours in water, mixed 
with sulphur. This process, with attentive watering, 
Avill cause the seed to vegetate in less than a fortnight. 
Parsley is sometimes used in held culture. 

PARSNEP — Panais, 
This vegetable requires a deep, rich, light soil, free 
from stones, and should be dug or trenched before sow- 
ing, at least two spades deep; and if manured at the 
same time, the dung should be quite rotted and well 
v/orkcd in. Sow as early in the spring as possible, in 
drills two {cet apart, and cover the seed about one 
quarter of an inch deep. Thin out to ten inches in the 
rows, and keep them free from weeds by regular and 
frequent hoeings. 

PEA PoiS, 

Sow as early in the year as the ground can be wor- 
ked, in a sheltered situation in double rows four feet 
apart, and cover the peas about three inches. Manure 
moderately, and dig it in well. Sow the early Wash- 
ington and the blue Prussian together, and the former 
will come in a fortnight before the other. A quart of 
peas will sow two double rows about twenty-hve feet 
each. As the early crops appear, draw the soil over 
them; and as they advance from half an inch to three 
inches high, and when the weather is dry, draw the 
earth to the stems, and continue repeatedly to hoe and 
earth up, as it will assist the pease to bear plentifully. 
When they are six or eight inches higli, place a row of 
sticks or brush about five feet long in the middle of the 
double rows, and a few smaller ones on the outside of 
each row. Suit the sticks to the pease, as there is an 
advantage in having them of a proper length; they 
should be both tall and branchy. Sow again from the 
middle to the end of April, to come in use about the end 
of July and beginning of August. Where great nicety 


is practised, put of the early frame about three to an 
inch, the charlton, hotspur, and dwarf marrowfats, two; 
the Prussian blue and middle-sized sorts, three in two 
inches; the large marrowfat, the rounceval, and most 
large sorts, an inch and a half apart. 

Mr. W. Curr has been very successful in raising early 
pease; the following are his directions: ''The pease 
which I have found to do best w ith me are the early 
double blossomed frame pease. I prefer to have them 
two or three years old, as they bear earlier and do not 
run so much into vine. An early piece of ground 
should be selected for this purpose, not too rich, and if 
possible lying dry. It should be well dug without dung, 
and made fine wdth the spade and rake. The drills should 
be drawn three feet and a half apart, six inches deep, and 
two inches wide at the bottom, and about one inch of 
well rotted short dung laid in them, wdiich should be co- 
vered w ith tw^o inches of earth, and the pease sown over 
them with about six inches of earth, which leaves a small 
ridge immediately above the pease. In this state they 
may lie for eight or ten days, the ground may then be ra- 
ked level to await the coming up of the pease. Should 
they make their appearance in cold weather, a little 
litter or straw may be laid along the drills, and taken 
otr whenever the air is free from frost. When the 
pease are about one inch high, the earth should be 
gently stirred with the hoe on each side of the row, and 
when they are advanced to about three inches in height, 
a little earth may be drawn up to their stems; if the 
weather be cold, they may be protected by setting two 
boards on the edge so that they meet together over the 
row. As the pease advance, the earth should be stirred 
near the rows, and when six inches high, they ought to 
have sticks set out on each side of the row^ at the dis- 
tance of from twelve to eighteen inches apart, taking 
care not to have the slicks too crowded, yet to have 
enough of branches near their bottoms, so that the ten- 
drils of the pease may take easy hold. Care should now 
be taken that the pease keep upright; when tliey put 
out six or eight flowers, the leading shoot should be 
stopped by nipping tlie top off — this greatly promotes 


the forming and filling of the pods. Should the weather 
be dry, it may be requisite to water them; this should 
be done at night, and should be repeated every night 
during the continuance of the drought. Pease thus 
raised are seldom attacked with the bug. For the later 
crop, the double row is generally used, and answers 
better than the single, as the double take nearly the 
same quantity of sticks, and are more shaded from the 
sun, which is a great advantage when the sun gets high. 
The ground may likewise be stronger and the sticks 
longer, but for the earliest pease the small quantity of 
manure used is quite sufficient to push them forward, 
without giving too much force to their after growth, or 
to keep them flowering, setting, and filling their pods." 

Between rows of the tall growing kinds have beds of 
onions, carrots, turnips, or any other crops that grow 
low; but there is a later method of planting pease, which 
is more economical of room, and is said to be preferable 
to any other plan: thus, instead of sowing a straight 
row, form the ground into circles of three feet diame- 
ter, with two feet between each, in a row thirty feet 
long, and there will be six circles of pease of nine feet 
each, making fifty-four feet instead of thirty, which 
would be the length of the row. If another row of cir- 
cles is wanted, leave a bed between for something else, 
and go on as before. For the very tall sorts, four feet 
circles will be best. Be careful to apply the sticks at 
the proper time. 

Bishop^ s Early Prolific Pea is extremely productive; 
and surpasses in some of its qualifications any pea hith- 
erto known. Its remarkable dwarfishness is a great 
recommendation for small gardens, as it seldom exceeds 
twelve inches in height. Plant two or three inches apart 
in the rows, which its spreading habits require, and 
which answers better than when sown closer, hence it 
is obvious there will be a great saving of seed, as a 
quart of this will go as far as four quarts of most other 
pease. It is very early, and begins blooming when three 
inches high, bears abundantly, and is fine eating. Plant 
weekly for a constant succession, and green pease may 
thus be obtained all the summer and autumn. From 


the nature of its growth it appears better calculated to 
withstand the heat of our summers than any other 
variety we know of. 

Woodford^s JVeio Tall Prolific Pea is a very great 
bearer, and is remarkable for continuing to yield during 
the greater part of the summer. It has a fine green 
color when dry. Sow about the tenth of May. 

It is recommended to farmers to plant pease in their 
potato hills. A farmer to the east of us says he raised 
more pease last year from a peck sown in this way, 
than from a bushel sown in any other way. The vines 
of the potatoes serve as sticks for the pease to run up on; 
and the size of the pease will be much increased by 
planting in this way. iVfter the potatoes are planted, 
go through the rows and plant three pease in a hill. 

PEPPER — Pinent, 

Sow the seed in a warm border, the last of April, and 
then transplant eighteen inches apart; or sow the seed 
in May, in drills, two i^eei apart. 

RADISH — Raphanus sativus. 

It requires a light mellow soil, well dug up. The 
small sorts may be sown among lettuce, onions, &c. 
They should be sown every two weeks, from April to 
August, to insure a succession of crops. They may be 
sown broad-cast, or in drills, not too thick, as the tops 
would run up too much, and the roots be stringy. They 
should stand from two and a half, to five inches apart, 
the seed should be covered from half an inch to an inch 
deep, according to the weather or season. In dry 
weather, water them freely — this swells the roots, and 
makes them crisp. To prevent worms, take equal 
parts of buckwheat bran, and fresh horse dung, and 
mix well with the ground — in forty-eight hours fer- 
mentation, and a crop of toad stools will be produced. 
Dig the ground over — sow the seed — they will grow 
rapidly, and be free of insects. Leaves of radish are 
often used as salad; and the green pods are pickled, as 


substitutes for capers. Old radishes are indigestible, 
and render the breath bad. 

The earliest should be kept for seed, and require 
about a yard of ground to each. 

RHUBARB — Rheum undulatum. 

An Asiatic plant, the stalks of which grow to the 
height of twenty four inches and the thickness of a la- 
dy's finger. Stripped of their outer covering, they 
yield a substance slighty acid, much admired, and used 
as an ingredient in puddings, tarts, pies, &c. It forms 
a great article in the London market, the stalks selling 
at about twenty-five cents a bunch. 

The seed should be sown in a rich, dry, sandy loam, 
about three-fourths of an inch deep, as early in the 
spring as possible, (if done in November they will ve- 
getate in spring with more certainty;) when the young 
plants appear, keep them free from weeds; if dry wea- 
ther, water them frequently, with but a little water at a 
time; and be very careful to protect them from the 
mid-day sun, till they get considerably strong, for if ex- 
posed fully to this during their infant state, but few will 
escape destruction. A wide board placed side-wise on 
the south side, projecting over the plants a little, would 
serve this purpose effectually, without depriving them 
of the benefit of circulating air. The first season is 
their critical period, having survived that, they have 
nothing to fear. In November, the leaves having de- 
cayed, cover the crowns of the plants two inches deep, 
Avith earth from tlie intervals. In April strip off the 
covering till you perceive the tops of the plants, give 
all the ground a slight digging, dress it neatly, keep the 
beds well hoed, and always free from weeds. It is 
much better propagated by slips from the old roofs, in 
the spring months; the seed starts very readily if 
sown in the autumn, but is very shy of vegetating in 
the spring. 

SPINACH, OR spiNAGE — Epiuard, 
Sow broadcast in rich ground, about the middle of 
August to come into use in October, and about the tenth 


of September for spring use: or sow in drills eight or 
ten inches apart, and hoe and keep clean. When the 
winter has fairly set in, the plants must be covered with 
straw, salt hay, or cedar brush : they will bear the frost 
of an ordinary winter without protection; but by covering 
them, an earlier and better crop is obtained. 

SQUASH — Giraumon, 

"The Early Bush Squashes are best for garden cul- 
ture, and their produce is allowed to be equal in quality 
to the running kinds. The Vegetable Marrow is also 
well deserving of cultivation. The seeds of these may 
be planted early in May, in hills four or five feet apart. 
The Running Squash may be planted at the same time 
and in the same manner as pumpkins; and the manage- 
ment of these various kinds of vines is the same in every 
respect as cucumbers and melons. It is always best to 
put five or six seeds in a hill, as a guard against acci- 
dents. When the plants are past danger, they can be 
thinned to two or three in a hill." 

The fruit of the early or summer sorts are unfit for 
use when ripe ; and the winter sorts cannot be used till 
they are ripe. 


Sow early in April, an inch deep, in drills twelve 
inches apart. When the plants are two or three inches 
high, they should be thinned to the distance of six 
inches from each other, and afterwards hoed. The 
ground should be kept clean and loose round the 
plants, by repeated hoeings; and in the autumn they 
will be fit for use. The roots may be taken up late in 
the fall, and secured in moist sand from the air; or be 
suffered to remain out, and dug up when wanted. 

STRAWBERRY — Fragaria, 
There are many varieties, and the number is con- 
stantly increasing by crossing and cultivation. 


It requires a light warm soil, manured exclusively 
with vegetable matter. Rich manure increases the 
vines, but diminishes the fruit. Rotten v/ood and leaves, 
with ashes, in a compost heap, are the best manure. 
It requires great moisture. The usual time for trans- 
planting is August or May. Let the bed be two feet 
wide — set the plants, if they are strong, one shoot in a 
place, eight by twelve inches distant, that they may 
form a matted bed. Leave on all the healthy leaves; 
keep the ground loose and free from weeds. To keep 
the fruit from the ground, put round the borders of the 
beds straw or leaves. Seeds sown as soon as ripe, will 
produce fruit the next year. 

This fruit does not undergo acetous fermentation. 
Care must be taken to transplant a few wa/e, with theye- 
male plants, in number about one of the former to fifteen 
of the latter. [See Farmers^ Reporter for JVov. 1831.] 

SKiRRET — CheiDis, 
Sow the latter end of March or early in April, in a 
light moist soil, for in dry land the roots are generally 
small, unless the season proves wet. The root of the 
Skirret is composed of several fleshy tubers, as large as 
a man's finger, and joining together at top. They are 
eaten boiled, and stewed with butter, pepper, and salt, 
or rolled in flour and fried, or else cold with oil and 
vinegar, being first boiled. They have much of the 
taste and flavor of a Parsnep, but a great deal more 
palatable. The seed of the Skirret are five or six 
weeks in vegetating. 


Sown on hot-beds in March — in the open air in April 
and May — an excellent and well known pot herb, of 
easy culture. 


Sown on rich soil, in drills, the latter part of April — 
the next spring after sowing, transplant it two feet 
apart, into beds of rich earth — it is best to give it some 
sb 'Iter of horse manure and straw during the winter. 


TOMATO — Tomate ou pomme. 

It should be sown in hot beds in March, or in warm 
borders the first of jNIay. Its cuhivation is too well 
known to require further directions. 

TURNIP — JVavet. 

Sow as early in the spring as possible, on a light, 
moderately rich soil. It should be well dug, and if 
necessary to manure, let it be done at the latter end 
of the year, or if applied at the time of sowing, the 
dung should be well rotted and buried beneath the sur- 
face; fresh dung should never be used for turnips. Sow 
broadcast and rake in ; when the plants are well up, 
thin out with the hoe to six or eight inches. For the 
fall and winter crop, sow about the tenth of August, on 
good ground, from w^hich an early crop of lettuce, rad- 
ishes, potatoes, &:c. may have been taken. Clear the 
ground and dig it well — sow broadcast as before, and 
thin out with a hoe to fifteen inches. When sowed in 
rows, the drills should be an inch deep, and twelve or 
fifteen inches asunder. 

Sand or gravel, with a mixture of loam, produce the 
sweetest and best flavored roots. It should be made 
fine, but not too rich, lest the turnips be rank and ill 
tasted. Ground which has been newly cleared from 
the forest, yields the largest and sweetest roots; and 
on such spots there is least danger from insects. ''Next 
to new land, swarded ground is to be chosen for a crop 
of turnips; and the way to prepare it is, to plough it 
pretty deep in the spring, and fold it by turning in the 
stock for a good number of nights; for there is scarcely 
any of our fields sufliciently rich to produce turnips 
without manuring; and folding in this way appears to be 
the best method of enriching the ground for this pur- 
pose. It should be well harrowed as often as once a 
week, while the folding is continued, to mix the excre- 
ments of the cattle with the soil." 

To prevent the depredations of the fly, which infest 
this plant in ho.^ weather, let the seed be steeped in 
water, with one ounce of sulphur to the pint. One 



pound of seed will sow an acre; and should be sown in 
that proportion for smaller pieces of ground. 

In compiling the preceding directions for cultivating 
garden vegetables, I have been greatly assisted by the 
catalogues of seeds, &c. of Mr. B. Russell, and Mr. 
George Thorburn's establishments, and by a treatise 
published by Asa Lee Davison, Esq. of Ohio. 


A copious supply of water is very essential to a good 
garden. Loudon remarks, 'that many kitchen crops 
are lost for want of watering. Lettuces and cabbages 
are often hard and stringy; turnips and radishes do not 
swell; onions decay; cauliflowers die off; and in gene- 
ral in dry seasons all the cruciform^ (flowers with petals 
in the form of a cross) become stinted, or covered with 
insects, even in rich, deep soils. Copious waterings in 
the evenings, during the dry seasons would cause that 
fulness and succulency which we find in vegetables 
produced in the low countries, and in the Marsh Gar- 
dens at Paris, and in England at the beginning and 
latter end of the season. 

"Watering is requisite for various purposes, as ali- 
ment to plants in a growing state; as a support to newly 
transplanted plants; for keeping under insects, and 
keeping clear the leaves of vegetables. 

One general rule must ever be kept in mind during 
the employment of water; that is, never to water while 
the sun shines. A moment's reflection will convince 
any one that this rule is agreeable to the laws of na- 
ture, for during rain the sun's rays are intercepted by 
a panoply of fog or clouds. AH artificial watering, 
therefore, should be carried on in the evening or early 
in the > morning, unless it be confined to watering the 
roots, in which case transplanted plants, and others in 
a growing state may be watered at any time, and if 
they are shaded from the sun, they may also be watered 
over the tops. 


The water used for watering vegetables, if taken 
from a well or cold spring, shovld be exposed one day 
at least to the shining of the sun, otherwise it will give 
a chill to the plants. Only a small quantity should be 
applied at once, that it may have an effect similar to 
that of a refreshing rain: for water applied too plenti- 
fully sometimes washes away the finest of the mould 
from the roots, or makes little cavities about them, 
which admit too much air. 



On every square rod planted with cucumbers, put a 
piece of a board flat on the ground, to preserve your 
plants from a striped bug, which some seasons is very 
destructive. This simple experiment may seem to be 
novel and ineffectual: but the secret of the matter is, 
the board forms a shelter for a toad, which hops from 
under the cover at night and destroys the bugs, and 
during the day time may be found by turning over the 
board. Should any one have doubts on the subject, he 
can easily try the experiment. 


As a general principle, almost every thing that grows, 
thrives best in a rich soil; there are a few exceptions, 
but they are so trifling, that this rule may be laid down 
for all practical purposes: therefore make your ground 
rich; decayed vegetable matter from the woods is best: 
for a flower-garden; dig and turn it well over, and 
make it level; then rake it smooth; if it is well dug, 
it will be perfectly level, therefore the raking is 
necessary only to make it smooth and fine. In small 
gardens, where there is not space for picturesque de- 
lineations, neatness must be the prevailing characteristic. 
"A variety of forms may be indulged in, provided the 
figures are graceful and neat, and not in any one place 
too complicated. An oval is a figure that generally plea- 
ses, on account of the continuity of its outlines; next, if 
extensive, a circle. But hearts, diamonds, or triangles, 


seldom please. A simple parallelogram, divided into 
beds running lengthwise, or the larger segment of an 
oval, with beds running parallel to its outer margin, 
will always please." When your ground is ready, mark 
out a bed according to the number of kinds you have 
to sow; we will suppose you have forty, a little bed, ten 
feet six inches long by two broad, will hold them, (when 
there is plenty of room of course more can be taken.) 
Fasten your line on each side; begin at six inches from 
one end, have a square stick, longer than the width 
of the bed, with a mark near each end and one for the 
centre; lay it across the bed, and place the number- 
stick with the name of a sort on each side exactly in 
the middle; draw a shallow drill with your fingers; 
take two sorts, and sprinkle one along the drill on one 
side of the number-stick, and one on the other; press 
them gently down, and cover them about a quarter of an 
inch: then move your stick six inches from the drill, 
put in the number-stick, sprinkle, cover, and proceed 
till you have filled the bed. You will now have twenty 
rows, and two kirds in each rcvr. Half a row will 
contain as many plants as you Avill vrant of one kind, 
that space being sufficient for twenty or thirty dahlia 
seed, and of the smaller kinds two or three times that 
number. At the latter end of April or the beginiiing 
of May, the seed must be sown: in about a month, more 
or less, many of them will be fit to transplant. Take 
advantage of cloudy and rainy weather for this opera- 
tion; move the plants carefully with a transplanting 
trowel, the smaller kinds set in front, the larger in the 
rear, taking care to arrange them alternately according 
to their color and time of flowering: but if the sky be 
unclouded and the sun bright, give a little water, and 
it will be safest to cover them with a flower-pot or 
something else for a few days. Any thing may be 
transplanted that we know of, except the Poppy and 
Lupin, and these we believe to be impossible; they 
must therefore be sown where they are to flower. 

The Convolvulus minor, with its beautiful azure, open 
to the morning and closing with advancing day, pene- 
trates deeply, and cannot easily be moved, and it should 


be done when quite young. Man}' other flower?, 
Avhich have long naked roots, should also be moved 
when young. Sow Mignonette near your house, under 
the windows, any where and every where, Avherever 
you can constantly enjoy its delightful sweets; it is 
most fragrant in spring and autumn, and continues till 
quite cold weather. 

The cypress vine {ipomce quamodit) has been gene- 
rally supposed to possess very tardy vegetating 
properties, and that without artificial aid it v.ould 
necessarily lie in a state of quiescence live or six 
weeks: we are satisfied, however, from experience, that 
if the seed is good, and it is not planted till the end of 
May, it will be out of the ground in a week, or as 
soon as about any other kind. It is very much admired, 
and deserves to be. Of all the annual vines it is the 
most worthy of commendation, as it combines neatness, 
elegance, and beauty. 

In dry seasons, when no rain falls for five or six 
weeks, and the eart]i becomes parched and hard, and 
dry for several inches deep, the smaller and more deli- 
cate kinds look stinted and miserable, and the taller 
and sturdier are shorn of the full and ample propor- 
tions which they attain when visited by kindly and- 
refreshing shov^'crs. The china-aster, dahlia, phlox, 
and some others, are very impatient of dryness; but 
we know of no flower oi more obdurate habits than the 
chrysanthemum, which will resist the most searching ex- 
siccation for a long period. The balsam, though one of 
the most succulent of plants, can support an extreme 
degree of dryness without detriment; but mignoiictte, 
the monthly woodbine, and some other fragrant flowers 
lose their precious odours in an arid atmosphere. 

The foregoing directions are principally intended for 
small gardens in the city, where it is necessary to use 
great economy, in making the most of a little; what fol- 
lows, relates to the general culture and management 
of large gardens, which we copy from that inexhausti- 
ble source of horticultural treasures, Loudoivs Enryclo- 
pcedia of Gardening. This splendid work contains 
every thing connected with the art: and though these 



notices vi'crc v>Tittcn for the guidance of English gar- 
deners, tliey are equally applicable to the arrangement 
of flower-gardens in this country, by a slight alteration 
Avitli regard to the time, as the spring is much earlier 
in England, and consequently the ground there can be 
Vforked, and seed sown a month or two before we can 
commence gardening operations. 

The cultivation of the Flowcr-Garden\% simple compar- 
ed with that of the kitchen-garden, both from its limited 
extent and the general sameness of its products; but to 
manage it to perfection requires a degree of nicety and 
constant attention beyond any other open-air depart- 
ment of gardening. As the stalks of flowering plants 
shoot up, they generally require thinning, and props for 
support; and the blossom, both of plants and shrubs, no 
sooner expands than it begins to wither, and must be cut 
off, unless, as in some of the ornamental shrubs, they 
are left for the sake of the beauty of their fruit. Weed- 
ing, watering, stirring the soil, cutting off stems which 
have done flowering, attending to grass and gravel, 
must go hand and hand in these operations. 

With respect to xhe general culture and manuring the 
soil^ it should be subjected, as far as practicable, to the 
same process of trenching to diifcrent depths as that 
of the kitchen-garden. In the shrubbery this cannot 
be done, but it, and also the earth compartments of the 
flowder-garden, should be turned over a spit in depth, 
and some vegetable mould, or very rotten cow-dung, 
added occasionally. Every two or three j'ears the plants 
in the flower-garden should be taken up and reduced in 
size, and the beds or borders trenched, say one time at 
two spits deep, another at three, and so on, adding en- 
riching compost or manure completely rotted, accord- 
ing to circumstances. If, instead of trenching, the old 
earth were entirely removed, and replaced by good loam 
from a dry upland parterre, the improvement would be 
still greater. Most herbaceous plants flower well in 
such loam, and for tlie more cultivated sorts, as border 
pinks, polyantliuses, &c. that require a xich soil, a por- 
tion of enricliing matter could be added to each plant 
as planted, and a corresponding attention paid to such 


as require peat-earth, sand, clay, or iime. In the shrub- 
bery, a similar renewal of soil, and attention to the soils 
required by particular shrub-plants, is also necessary, 
at least in front, where the more delicate shrubs natu- 
rally rank, and where the herbaceous plants are chiefly 

With respect to the tiracs of plantings or sowing, and 
manner of cropping the flower-garden and shrubbery, 
the greater part of the surface being covered with 
shrubs or plants of perennial duration, very little crop- 
ping is required, and as a substitute for a rotation, 
recourse must be had to the renewal of the soil as re- 
commended above. Annuals are sown at various 
periods from April to June; but for the principal show, 
generally in May: the half-hardy sorts are raised in 
hot beds in the reserve department, and transplanted 
where they are to flower in May or June, and later 
sowings and transplantings are made to procure a pro- 
tracted display. Biennials and perennials of the fibrous 
or ramose rooted kinds are transplanted from the 
reserve department in October or April; and such bul- 
bous roots as are annually taken up, are generally re- 
planted in November or April. When bulbs and other 
florists' flowers are cultivated in beds, a rotation may be 
adopted as far as respects them: thus the hyacinth, 
tulip, &:c. may be succeeded by annuals, and those by 
the dianthus tribe, or dahlias, &C.5 but in borders and 
compartments planted in the mingled manner, as well 
as in shrubberies, a rotation is out of the question. 
Particular care is requisite to remove weak, ill-condi- 
tioned, or ill-flowering plants, and to replace them by 
others of the same height and color. This may be done 
at all seasons of the year by the use of the transplanter; 
but the better mode is to have always an ample stock 
in the reserve-garden, of all the colors and heights, both 
of herbaceous plants and low shrubs, in pots, and when- 
ever, when any plant is in flower, a defect appears, it 
can be remedied at once by turning the plant out of 
the pot into its situation in the border. 

Herbaceous plants require little pruning, but never- 
theless something in this wa}' may be occasionally 


required on the same general principles applied to 
trees. Where very large flowers are wanted, it 
is obviously advantageous to prevent the plant from 
expanding its vigour in too great a number of them, 
or in mere shoots and leaves. Top-heavy plants, 
as some thistles, solidagos, &c. may require to be 
lightened, and almost all are benefitted by thinning 
out a part of their shoots. In some annuals, thin- 
ning is efiected both by eradication and pruning, 
and in the more delicate sorts by pinching off the young 
shoot, when an inch or two high. Creepers, climbers, 
and shrubs planted against walls or trellises, either on 
account of their rarity, delicacy, or to conceal the ob- 
ject against v/hich they are placed, require different 
degrees of training; those which attach themselves na- 
turally, as the ivy, merely require to be occasionally 
guided so as to induce a regular distribution of their 
shoots; the others must be treated like fruit-trees, train- 
ing thinly, if blossoms are the object; and rather thicker, 
if a mass of foliage be what is chiefly wanting. "Edg- 
ings of ail sorts," Marshall observes, "should be kept in 
good order, as having a singularly neat effect in the 
appearance of a garden. The dead edgings will some- 
times, and the live edgings often, vvant putting to rights; 
either cutting, clipping, or making up complete. Where 
there are no edgings, or but weak ones, let the earth 
bordering on the walks be kept firm, and now and then 
worked up by line in moist weather, beating it smooth 
with the spade." 

Alpine plants require protection from the cold, by 
covering with snow, or by hand-glasses, or frames during 
winter; and from heat, by screens to produce shade 
during summer. The roots of many sorts require to be 
protected by ashes, rotten tan, or litter, from frost, and 
the tops of others both shrubs and plants, to be guarded 
by fronds of fern, fir-branches, mats, or portable glass- 
cases, from rain, hail, and cutting winds. Great care 
must be taken to protect pots of plants from frost, by 
always keeping them plunged in earth or some noncon- 
ductor; for no state in which a plant can be placed is 
so obnoxious to the baneful influence of congelation as 


that of being grown in a pot. Climbing plants require 
to be supported by poles or rods, as some sorts of honey- 
suckle, bignonia, aristolochia, &:c.; by props, as pyra- 
midal bell-flower, dahlia, euphorbia, &c. or by branches 
or spray, as the nasturtium and pea tribe. Much of the 
beauty of the flower-garden depends on the manner in 
which these operations are performed. The prevalent 
error consists in overdoing the thing, in employing too 
stout and too long rods or props, and too many thick 
tufty, branches, instead of sucli as are free-grown and 
open. Watering must be liberally applied to almost 
every part of the flower-garden during summer, and in 
the evening; it increases the progress, and enlarges the 
parts of all vegetables; gives a fresh appearance to 
the soil as well as the plants, disperses their odours in 
the suiTounding atmosphere, and tends to subdue various 
kinds of insects. Ahvays water in the evening, as it 
has time to sink into the earth, and be imbibed by the 
flowers during the night. If it is done in the morning, 
the sun comes and drinks up the moisture before the 
plants derive any benefit, and the labour and water are 
thrown away. 

The cutting off Jlower-stnlks^ decaying Jlozvers, leaves, 
8/c, is to be done in most cases immediately after the 
flowers are faded ; but tliere are exceptions where the 
leaves on the lower part of flower-stems may be requi- 
site to strengthen the root, and where, as in the case of 
stipa, some convallarias, eringoes, &c. the parts of the 
flower are persisting, or the fruit or seed pods are ob- 
jects of beauty. The leaves of bulbous-rooted plants, 
and such others as are not prolific in foliage, should be 
carefully preserved till they have begun to decay; and, 
indeed, the base or rooted leaves of no plant whatever 
should be cut off till this is the case, unless for some 
particular object. Every single flow^er, as soon as the 
petals begin to droop, should be pinched ofl", and espe- 
cially every flower of the double kind. Every rose, 
when it begins to droop, should be dipt off near to the 
foot-stalk of the one w4iich is about to succeed it; and 
when the last of the corymb has done flowering, then 
the common foot-stalk should be cut off back to the first 


strong leaf-bud: nothing is more unsightly in a flower- 
garden than rose-bushes where this has not been at- 
tended to. 

J\mlness is the dress and visage of gardening, and if 
necessary any where, is more especially so in the flower- 
garden. A gardener who pretends to manage a flower- 
garden without the most vigilant attention to this point, 
at all times, is unworthy the charge. The first thing is 
to have a quick intelligent eye, so as instantly to per- 
ceive what is wanting, and the second is to be possessed 
of that principle of activity which immediately sets 
about supplying the want. Many gardeners have certain 
times for cleaning up^ S^c. and will go fifty times past a 
weed, stone, dead leaf, or some such article, Avhich dis- 
figures or injures a scene, without removing it, merely 
because the time for cleaning, &c. has not come. This 
is most abominably formal conduct, deserving the seve- 
rest reprobation. A gardener ought to have his eye, 
his head, his heart, his hand, his knife, and apron, ready 
for action at all times, places, and seasons, when within 
the precincts of his charge. 

The changeable Jloiccr-garden. The essential principle 
of this garden consists in the power of changing its pro- 
ductions at pleasure, so that whenever any plant, or 
group of plants, begin to decay, they can be removed 
and their places supplied by others coming into bloom. 
To admit of this a large reserve nursery is requisite, in 
which the plants must be kept in pots, and removed and 
plunged in the borders as wanted. The Chinese, as Sir 
W, Chambers informs us, excel in this mode of garden- 
ing; and we have been informed by a traveller who has 
resided some time at Canton, that he has known a man- 
darin (or noble) have the whole furniture and style of 
his parterre changed in a single night, so as next mor- 
ning to present not only a different description of flow- 
ers, shrubs, and dwarf-trees, but a different arrangement 
of the beds and compartments. Something of the same 
kind is practised in the gardens at the Tuilleries in 
Paris; in some of the imperial gardens at Petersburg, 
and in the vice-royal gardens of Monza. Gardens of 
this description admit of a ycry perfect arrangement 


of the flowers, whether in the mingled manner, in select 
groups, or according to the natural method. It is only 
with such resources that a flower-gardener can "paint 
his way," as Sir W. Chamhers says the Chinese artists 
do, "not scattering their flowers indiscriminately about 
their borders, but disposing of them with great circum- 
spection along the skirts of the plantations, or other 
places where flowers are to be introduced. They re- 
ject all that are of a straggling growth, of harsh colors, 
and poor foliage, choosing only such as are of some du- 
ration, grow either large or in clusters, are of beautiful 
forms, well leaved, and of tints that harmonize with the 
greens that surround them. They avoid all sudden 
transitions, both with regard to dimension and color, 
rising gradually from the smallest flowers to the holly- 
hocks, pasonies, sun-floAvers, carnation-poppies, and oth- 
ers of the boldest growth; and varying their tints by 
easy gradations, from white, straw-color, purple, and 
incarnate, to the deepest blues, and most brilliant crim- 
sons and scarlets. They frequently blend several roots 
together, whose leaves and flowers unite, and compose 
one rich harmonious mass ; such as the white and purple 
candytuft, larkspurs, and mallows of various colors, 
double poppies, lupins, primroses, pinks and carnations; 
with many more of which the forms and colors accord 
with each other; and the same method they use with 
flowering shrubs, blending white, red, and Aariegated 
roses together, purple and white lilacs, yellow and white 
jessamine, altheas of various sorts, and as many others 
as they can with any propriety unite. By these mixture-* 
they increase considerably the variety and beauty of 
their compositions. In their large plantations, the flow- 
ers generally grow in the natural ground; but in flower- 
gardens, and all other parts that arc highly kept, they 
are in pots, buried in the ground, which, as fast as the 
bloom goes off, are removed, and others are brought to 
supply their places; so that there is a constant succession 
for almost every month in the year; and the flowers are 
never seen but in the height of their l)cauty." 

The botanic flozcer-garden being intended to display 
something of the extent and variety of the vegetable 


kingdom, as well as its resemblances and differences, 
should obviously be arran2;ed according to some system 
or method of study. In modern times, the choice is 
almost limited to the artificial system of Ijnnaeus, and 
the natural method of Jussieu, though Adanson has 
given above fifty-six different methods by which plants 
may be arranged. The latter has much the best effect 
in a garden, and corresponds better with culture. The 
former, though most convenient for the young student, 
yet by bringing plants together that have few or no 
obvious relations, it destroys that harmony which is so 
gratifying in viewing natural families. Whatever meth- 
od is adopted, the plants may either be placed in regu- 
lar rows, or each order may be grouped apart, and 
surrounded by turf or gravel. For a private botanic 
garden, the mode of grouping on turf is much the most 
elegant, and it has this advantage, that as the species 
belonging to the group are increased, it can be enlarged 
by appropriating a part of the turf, and any group con- 
taining few species, may be filled up with repetitions for 
effect. The groups may be of the most irregular out- 
lines, and those which are to contain trees may be raised 
or lowered in surface, according as the species may be 
natives of hills or valleys, and the trees and plants so 
dispersed as that the former shall not conceal the latter, 
Dor present a compact lumpish appearance at the edges, 
or in the outline against the sky. Rock-work may be 
introduced in groups, where there are many alpines to 
be grown; and bogs, ponds, and springs imitated in oth- 
ers destined for aquatics, &c. as far as consistent with 
botanical purposes. A gravel walk may be so contrived 
as to form a tour of all the groups, displaying them on 
both sides; in the centre, or in any fitting part of the 
scene, the botanic hot-houses may be placed; and the 
whole might be surrounded with a sloping phalanx of 
evergreen plants, shrubs, and trees. The plants in such 
a garden should generally be neatly, but inconspicu- 
ously named, or, at all events numbered; but naming is 
greatly to be preferred, as saving trouble to the specta- 
tor, and more inviting to the novice desirous of know- 
ledge. It is hardly necessary to observe that the above 


modes of planting a flower-garden, are alike applicable 
to every form or style of laying out the garden or par- 
terre, and that they do not interfere with any mode of 
enclosing or surrounding it, or of edging the walks. 

Time of planting herbaceous plants. This is, in gene- 
ral, autumn and spring; but any perennial plant may be 
safely removed after it has done flowering or produced 
seed. With respect to biennials and annuals, they may 
be planted at almost any season before they have begun 
to throw up flower-stems. Biennials, however, are ge- 
nerally sown early in autumn in the flower-garden nur- 
sery, and transplanted either late in the same season or 
early in the following spring, to where they are to 
flower. Some annuals, such as larkspurs, euphorbia, 
mignonette, and other hardy kinds, flower best when 
sown in the fall. 


Nothing can be more beautiful for a garden than a 
hawthorn hedge, well kept. Live fences have already 
become objects of serious importance. 

The months of October, November, and December, 
will be the most eligible periods, in the southern states, 
for making this kind of fence; particularly as their 
frosts can do no injury to the ditch, and the roots will 
have an early establishment, and consequently be better 
prepared to encounter the summer heats. In the mid- 
dle and eastern states, it is preferable doing this 
business in March, or early in April; as the ditch, in 
that case, would have one year's advantage of the frost, 
which in some kinds of soil would have a considerable 
effect, particularly in the first year, by swelling the earth 
in the face of the ditch, causing it to moulder down, 
and thereby expose the roots to the quicks ; but this can 
be obviated by leaving a scarcement in tlie front, as 
hereafter directed. 

Strong year-old quicks will answer very well for lay- 
ing in the face of a ditch; but such as have had the 
advantage of two years' growth in nursery rows, after 
being transplanted when one year old from the seed 



bed, will sooner form a good fence, or two years old 
plants from the seed bed will answer a very good pur- 
pose. Be particular in taking them up, not to injure 
their roots but as little as possible, and to sort them 
into three different lots, the smallest, larger, and largest, 
and also to plant each lot together; for the mixing of 
the small with the large is very injudicious, as the form- 
er in a little time would be smothered and overgrown 
by the latter, and vacancies consequently formed in the 

Previous to planting, prune off the extremities of 
any long, straggling, and wounded roots, and also cut off 
the heads of the plants about seven inches above the 
earth-mark where they stood in the ground, and like- 
wise any side branches that remain; let no consideration 
prevent your doing this, for on it depends much of your 

Having your plants in readiness, and dressed in this 
manner, lay them by the heels in the earth, to be taken 
up as wanted, lest their roots should become dry, and be 
injured thereby. Then proceed to form your ditch, 
which should be four feet wide at least, at top, narrowing 
with a gentle slope on each side towards the bottom, to 
the perpendicular depth of two feet and a half, where 
it should be one foot wide. The more your ground is 
subject to slip by heavy rains, the greater slope must 
be given to the bank side. 

Begin by cutting the surface sod of the ditch into 
squares of convenient size, and about three inches deep, 
having previously lined out and cut both sides with a 
spade, sloping inwards as above intimated, and lay a 
row of them, with the grassy surface under, six inches 
inward from the edge on the bank side; lay on the top 
of this row of sods, two inches of the loose and mellow 
earth, that is, the best the ditch affords, and also a quan- 
tity of it behind them, for about eighteen inches or two 
feet, breaking it very fine with the spade; on this lay 
your quicks, nearly in a horizontal manner, their tops 
being a little elevated, and at the distance of six inches 
one from the other, and so far in, that three or four 
inches of their tops may remain uncovered when the 


ditch is finished. Spread the roots to advantage, and 
cover them well with the mouldy earth that dropped 
from the surface sod: this is necessary in order to give 
their roots the advantage of the best soil, and should on 
no account be neglected. Then proceed to finish your 
ditch and bank, laying the remainder of your surface 
sods in front of the bank, as you had done with the first 
row, giving it exactly a similar slope to that of the ditch, 
and the whole bank such a form, as if it was taken up 
at once out of the ditch, and turned upside down. The 
scarcement left in front, throws the bank so far back, 
as not to bear heavily on the side of the ditch to press it 
down, and it also will receive and retain a considerable 
portion of the rain that slides down along the surface of 
the bank, by which means the earth in front will be kept 
in a more moist state than if no such thing was left. 

Were you to lay in two rows of quicks in the front, 
the second eight or nine inches above the first, and the 
plants in each row nine or ten inches distant, placing 
those of the upper opposite the intervals of the lower, 
it would be the most effectual method of making a bet- 
ter and more immediate fence. A very slight paling 
on the top of the bank, that will defend the quicks for 
three years, will be sufficient, and if the land in front is 
not in cultivation, but under stock, a similar fence may 
be necessary to prevent their going into the dilch, and 
reaching the plants. But if you take particular care 
to keep them constantly weeded for the first two years, 
which is absolutely necessary, or all is lost labour, they 
will have the less inducement to approach them. 

Preparation of Hawthorn Seed for the raising of Thorn 
Quicks. — When you collect the seed in autumn, mix 
them with equal quantities of light sandy earth, and 
lay them in that state in a narrow sloping ridge, taper- 
ing at the top, in a dry part of your garden, where they 
will not be disturbed by hogs; cover them with about 
two inches of light loose earth; in April following turn 
them over, covering them as before; repeat this process 
in July and August, by which the seed will be prepared 
for vegetation. A trench must then be cut around this 
ridge, to prevent any water from lodging around the seed. 


Your seed being prepared as above, make ready a 
piece of good rich ground. Early in the spring sow 
your seed pretty thick, to allow for imperfect seeds, on 
beds about four feet wide, with an alley between each 
row: cover the seed three quarters of an inch. 


Pointing out the most important duties of the gardener in 

each month of the year ^ and the vegetables to be attended to 

during the periods mentioned. 

The object of this calendar is merely to give brief 
intimations of work to be performed in a garden, to- 
gether with some approximation to the time of year in 
which it should be accomplished. 

No precise time can be fixed which will suit the cli- 
mate in all the states. These directions are intended 
for the middle States, and particularly about the latitude 
40^ N. Allowance can be made for elevation of site, 
as well as, for situation North or South of that degree, 
but it is not po=.-":bic . perhaps, to state what that allow- 
ance should be with any degree of precision. 


But little can be done this month, except getting 
poles for pease and beans. Beds for forcing cucumbers, 
melons, &c. may be prepared. 


Take out your manure and leave it in heaps — bum 
haum — clean seed — get and repair tools — prepare ma- 
terials for hot beds — clear your trees of moss and mice, 
and give them a coat of lime ; sow asparagus — sow for 
transplanting, on hot beds, radishes, carrots, salads, 
pease and beans, protect vegetating plants by old litter, 
mats, barks, &c. 


Sow lettuce in open ground and in vacant places 
among the rows of other plants, where it can be pulled 


out before they need the room. Early pease and 
radishes cannot be planted too soon after the frost is out. 
Plant cabbage, cucumber, melon, squash, &:c. in hot 
beds — dress borders; clean, re-lay, or make new gravel 
walks, turn compost, dress asparagus and make new 
beds, set out cabbage stumps for seed, salad, and greens; 
sow cress, mustard, and radish for salad once a fortnight; 
plant celery, artichoke, and horse radish. 


Sow artichokes, asparagus, beans, beets, broccoli, 
cucumbers in hot beds, cauliflower, cabbage in a warm 
border, carrots, celery, cress, lettuce, mustard, nastur- 
tium, onions, parsley, parsneps, pepper, pease, sweet 
potato in hot beds, radishes, rhubarb, salsify, sea kale, 
spinage, squashes, and turnips for early and garden crops. 

For particular directions for cultivating the above 
named or any other vegetables mentioned in this calen- 
dar, see the preceding pages where they are alphabeti- 
cally arranged. The precise time in the month ia 
which they ought to be sown is there specified. Propa- 
gate fruit trees in this month. 


Again plant cucumbers, melons, and squashes; plant 
corn, pumpkins, gourds and beans, having the poles set 
first; weed advancing crops; transplant radishes for 
seed ; weed, thin, and transplant lettuce, and sow more 
seed; sow other small salads; plant pease twice this 
month; prune fruit trees; sow borecole, broccoli, if not 
sown last month, beets do., Brussels sprouts; transplant 
or prick out cauliflowers, do. cabbage plants; plant 
cucumbers again; transplant egg plants and lettuce; 
plant okra; sow pease for second crops, tomatoes, and 


Keep all your plants clean and well watered if neces- 
sary; plant cucumbers and melons for pickling; plant 

I 2 


more potatoes, pease, beans, and salads; plant out cab- 
bage for winter; pick off overloading fruit. 


Clean all your vacant ground, where your early crops 
were, to plant for fall and winter supplies; sow salads 
every eight or ten days, in shady places at this season; 
f^ow turnips any time this month, and to fifteenth of Au- 
gust; sow radish, lettuce, spinage, and cabbage for fall 
greens; collect ripe seeds; let them remain on the 
stems pulled up till dry; water thirsty plants; bud or 
inoculate fruit trees. 


Keep all clean of weeds; remove haum to compost 
beds; cut such herbs as are in flower, that you want to 
save for winter use, or for distilling; dry them in the 
shade; keep dung hills and compost heaps free from 
weeds, to prevent their being filled with seeds. Inocu- 
late or bud, if the bark still slips; sow onions to stand 
over winter. 


Gather seeds as they ripen; earth up celery if you 
have any; sow radishes; pull ripe onions; the last of 
this month transplant perennials; defend your grapes 
from wasps by hanging vials of honey and water among 
them; clear your seed beds and young plantations of 
weeds; gather your cucumbers and mangoes for pickles 
before they spot. 


Set your cabbage plants of last month''s sowing in a 
warm sheltered bed, to stand through the winter. The 
sun must not shine on them when frozen; protect them 
in the winter, by glasses, mats, or boards, but let them 
have air in mild weatlier. When asparagus turns yel- 
low, cut them off close to the ground, and carry off the 
branches: cover them with old litter; plant out seed 
onions; sow rhubarb and sea-kale; tiiey will be up in 


April; manure, dig up, and trench vacant ground; clean 
old strawberry beds; cut off the runners close to the 
plants, and apply a slight dressing of proper compost. 


"Gather your winter fruits, not forgetting your 
squashes; sow rhubarb, sea-kale, skirret, parsneps; ma- 
nure and trench your ground for early spring crops; 
sow early pease if you can protect them from the mice; 
plant seeds of fruit trees; lay a good coating of litter 
over the roots of choice trees and shrubs." 


"If the season permits, do which was directed last 
month and remains undone; collect all your old sticks 
and poles, and lay them up carefully; procure stakes 
and other materials which may be wanted in a more 
busy season. 


"All our garden fruits are but ameliorated varieties 
of such as are wild. The amelioration has resulted 
from human skill, time and accident; and being so pro- 
duced can only by art be continued. Hence the two 
great operations for procuring and perpetuating improv- 
ed varieties of fruits are, amelioration and propagation. 

"Amelioration 'consists either in acquiring new or im- 
proved varieties of fruit, or increasing their good 
qualities when acquired. There is in all beings a dis- 
position to deviate from their original nature when 
cultivated, or even in a wild state. But this disposition 
is so strong in some as to render them particularly adap- 
ted to become subject to domestication: for instance, the 
dog, the pigeon, and the barn-yard fowl are cases in 
which this tendency is most strongly marked in animals; 
and domesticated fruits are a parallel case in the vege- 
table world. 

^Cultivators increase this disposition chiefly in two 
ways; either by constantly selecting the finest existing 


varieties for seed, or by intermixing the pollen and stig- 
ma of two varieties for the purpose of procuring 
something of an intermediate nature. The power of 
obtaining cross-bred varieties at pleasure, has only ex- 
isted since the discovery of sexes in plants. In select- 
ing seed from the finest existing varieties, we should, 
moreover, take care to select it from the handsomest, 
largest and most perfectly ripened specimens of those 
varieties; for "a seedling plant will always partake 
more or less of the character of its parent, the qualities 
of which are concentrated in the embryo, when it has 
arrived at full maturity." Now, if the general qualities 
of a given variety are concentrated in the embryo under 
any circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that they 
will be most especially concentrated in a seed taken 
from that part of a tree in which its peculiar good quali- 
ties reside in the highest degree. For instance, in the 
fruit of an apple, growing upon a north wall, there is a 
smaller formation of sugar than in the same variety on a south wall; and it can be easily under- 
stood that the seed of that fruit, which is itself least 
capable of forming saccharine solutions, will acquire 
from its parent a less power of the same nature than if 
it had been formed within a fruit in which the saccha- 
rine principle was abundant. It should, therefore, be 
always an object with a gardener, in selecting a variety 
to become the parent of a new sort, to stimulate that 
variety by every means in his power to produce the 
largest and most fully ripened fruit that it is capable of 
bearing. The importance of doing this is well known 
in regard to melons and cucumbers, and also in preser- 
ving fugitive varieties of flowers; but it is not generally 
practised in raising fruit trees." 

Cross-hred varieties. — 'The power of procuring inter- 
mediate varieties by the intermixture of the pollen and 
stigma of two different parents is, however, that which 
most deserves consideration. We all know that hybrid 
plants are constantly produced in every garden, and 
that improvements of the most remarkable kind are 
yearly occurring in consequence. All cases, however, 
of cross-fertilization are subject to "a practical conse- 


fjuence of great importance," namely, theit "the new 
variety will take chiefly after its polleniferous or male 
parent, and that at the same time it will acquire some 
of the constitutional peculiarities of its mother. The 
limits within which experiments of this kind must be 
confined are, however, narrow. It seems that cross- 
fertilization will not take place at all, or very rarely, but 
between different species, unless these species are near- 
ly related to each other, and that the offspring of the 
two distinct species is itself sterile, or, if it possesses 
the power of multiplying itself by seed, its progeny re- 
turns back to the state of one or other of its parents. 

'Hence it seldom or never has happened that domes- 
ticated fruits have had such an origin. We have no 
varieties raised between the apple and the pear, or the 
quince and the latter, or the plum and cherry, or the 
gooseberry and currant. On the other hand, new va- 
rieties, obtained by the intermixture of two pre-existing 
varieties, are not less prolific, but on the contrary often 
more so than either of their parents; witness the 
numerous sorts of Flemish pears, which have been rais- 
ed by cross-fertilization from bad bearers within the last 
twenty years, and which are the most prolific fruit trees 
with which gardeners are acquainted; witness also Mr. 
Knight's cherries, raised between the May duke and 
the graffion, and Eve's golden drop plum, raised from 
the green gage fertilized by the yellow magnum bonum. 
It is, therefore, to the intermixture of the most valuable 
existing varieties of fruit that gardeners should trust for 
the amelioration of their stock.' 

To cause bad bearers to be prolific, the means are, 
*1. By ringing the bark. 2. By bending branches 
downwards. 3. By training; and 4. By the use of 
different kinds of stocks. All these practices are in- 
tended to produce exactly the same effects by different 
ways. Whatever tends to cause a rapid diffusion of 
the sap and secretions of any plant, causes also the for- 
mation of leaf buds instead of flower buds; and on 
the contrary, whatever tends to cause an accumulation 
of sap and secretions has the effect of producing flower 
buds in abundance.' Ringing, by tending to prevent 


the return of sap to the part below the ring, also tends 
to cause the desired accumulation of sap in the pari 
above the ring. 

Bending down the branches effects the same accumu- 
lation with more certainty. When branches are in 
(heir natural or erect position, the fluids are diffused 
through their vessels or tissue uninterruptedly and ra- 
pidly; but by bending down the branches, the vessels 
become more or less compressed, and contribute to the 
accumulation of the juices or sap, by preventing its 
rapid diffusion. Training, as branches in this process 
are usually bent, effects the same object in the same 
manner; as well as by fixing the branches, and so pre- 
venting their being agitated by winds, as this agitation 
*is known to facilitate the movement of the fluids.' — 
Nor is the influence of the stock of an essentially dif- 
ferent nature. In proportion as the scion and the 
8tock approach each other closely in constitution, the 
less effect is produced by the latter; and on the contra- 
ry, in proportion to the constitutional difference between 
the stock and the scion is the effect of the former im- 
portant. Thus when pears are grafted or budded on 
the wild species; apples upon crabs, plums upon plums, 
and peaches upon peaches or almonds, the scion is, in 
regard to fertility, exactly in the same state as if it had 
not been grafted at all; while on the other hand, a great 
increase of fertility is the result of grafting pears upon 
quinces, peaches upon plums, apples upon white thorn, 
and the like. In the latter cases, the food absorbed 
from the earth by the root of the stock is communica- 
ted slowly and unwillingly to the scion; under no 
circumstances is the communication between the one 
and the other as free and perfect as if their natures had 
been more nearly the same; th-e sap is impeded in its 
ascent, and the proper juices are impeded in their de- 
scent; whence arises that accumulation of secretion 
which is sure to be attended with increased fertility. 

The fluid or sap collected by the roots, when elabo- 
rated in the leaves, is so modified by the combined 
action of air, light and evaporation, as to acquire the 
peculiar character of the secretions of the indi- 


vidual from which it is formed. 'From these secre- 
tions,' as discharged by the foliage into the system of 
the plant, 'the fruit has the power of attracting such 
portions as are necessary for its maturation. Hence it 
follows, that the more we can increase the peculiar secre- 
tions of a plant, the higher will become the quality 
of the fruits and vice versa. Pruning and training, and 
the exposure of branches to the most light in the sun- 
niest aspects, promote the former effect.' 

The next subject to be considered is, 'the mode of 
multiplying improved varieties of parts, so as to con- 
tinue in the progeny exactly the same qualities, as 
existed in the parent.' Seeds will not perpetuate a 
variety undeviatingly; buds will. 'A plant is really an 
animated body, composed of infinite multitudes of sys- 
tems of life; all indeed, united in a whole, but each 
having a power of emitting descending fibres in the 
form of roots, and also of ascending in the form of 
stem. The first of these buds is the embryo [in a 
seed;] the others are subsequently formed on the stem 
emitted by the embryo. As these secondary buds de- 
velope, their descending roots combine and form the 
wood, their ascending stems give rise again to new 
buds. These buds are all exactly like each other; they 
have the same constitution, the same organic structure, 
and the individuals they are capable of producing 
are, consequently, all identically the same ; allowance 
of course being made for such accidental injuries or 
alterations as they may sustain during their subsequent 
growth. It is upon the existence of such a remarkable 
physiological peculiarity in plants that propagation 
entirely depends; an evident proof of which may be 
seen in this circumstance : take a cutting of a vine con- 
sisting of the space which lies between two buds, an 
internodium, as botanists would call the piece, and no 
art will succeed in ever making it become a new plant, 
however considerable the size of the internodium may 
be. But, on the other hand, take the bud of a vine, 
without any portion of the stem adhering to it, and it 
will throw out stem and root, and become a new plant 
immediately.' The various modes of artificial propar 


gation, such as increasing by eyes, striking from 
cuttings, laying, budding and grafting, 'all consist in 
the application of these principles under various 
forms.' — Increasing by eyes or buds is illustrated by in- 
stances of the vine. Striking by cuttings consists in 
placing a stem, bearing more buds than one, 'in circum- 
stances fit for the continuance of life;' and this method 
has an advantage over propagation by single buds, as 
'the stem of the cutting forms an important reservoir of 
nutriment' for the buds it bears, until they can emit 
roots into the soil to cater for themselves. That bud 
which is nearest the bottom of the cutting emits its 
roots 'first into the earth,' and a 'good operator always 
takes care that the lower end of his cutting is pared 
down as close to the base of the bed as may be prac- 
ticable, without actually destroying any part of the 
bud itself: by this means the first emitted roots, instead 
of having to find their way downwards between the 
bark and wood, strike at once into the earth, and be- 
come a natural channel by which nutriment is conveyed 
into the general system of the cutting.' 

'Laying is nothing but striking from cuttings, that 
are still allowed to maintain their connexion with the 
mother plant, by means of a portion, at least of their 
stem. Tongueing the layer, 'has the effect of enabling 
the roots to be emitted into the soil through the wound 
more readily than if they had to pierce through the bark/ 

Budding and Grafting. — Budding differs from grafting 
in this, that a portion of the stem is not made to strike 
root on another stem; but that on the contrary, a bud 
deprived of all trace of the woody part of a stem is 
introduced beneath the bark of the stock, and there in- 
duced to strike root. 'In performing either of these 
operations, the great point to be attended to is to secure 
the exact contact of similar parts.' 

Transplanting, — The success of this important opera- 
tion, the writer conceives, may be proved to depend 
exclusively upon these two conditions: 1. The preser- 
vation of the spongioles of the roots; and 2. The 
prevention of excessive evaporation. The spongioles 
are the extremities of the fibres, and consist of bundles 


of vessels surrounded by cellular tissue in a very lax 
spongy state. 'Plants absorb all or nearly all of their 
fluids through these spongioles, and, as the latter are 
exceedingly delicate in their organization, their de- 
struction will be effected in exact proportion to the 
violence or carelessness with which their transplanta- 
tion is performed. 'It is because of the security of 
the spongioles from injury, when the earth is undistur- 
bed, that plants reared in pots are transplanted witli 
so much more success than if taken immediately from 
the soil.' As every fibre is terminated by a spongiole, 
cutting through the roots of large trees to induce the 
formation of fibres, the year previous to removing them, 
contributes to successful transplanting. 'When destroy- 
ed, the spongioles are often speedily replaced, particular- 
ly in orchard trees, provided a slight degree of growth 
continues to be maintained. This is one of the reasons 
why trees removed in October succeed better than if 
transplanted at any other time. The first impulse of 
nature, when the tree finds itself in a new situation, is 
to create new mouths by which to feed, when the season 
for growing again returns." 


Food is as necessary to the health and growth of 
plants as it is to animals. The best food for plants is 
rich, pulverised earth, or rather the vegetable matter 
which it contains. That your trees and shrubs ma} 
live and thrive, proceed as follows: Dig for your trees 
holes at least three feet in diameter, and eighteen inches 
deep, and for shrubs a proportionate size and depth, 
throwing away the lower spit of earth. Then fill up 
the hole to a proper height for setting the tree, with 
rich surface earth, or perfectly rotted manure, blended 
with four out of five parts of earth. Set yoUr tree, and 
cover with surface soil, treading down when the roots 
roots are covered with earth. See that the roots are 
trimmed of all bruised and broken parts; that they arc 
separately extended in their natural direction ; that fine 
earth every where comes in contact with them. A 



potato or two, or a gill of flaxseed or oats, may be ad- 
vantageously placed in the hole before the tree is set, 
and a pail of water turned in after the hole is two thirds 
filled. The rich earth affords nutritive pasture for the 
young roots to range in: the potatoes, &c. keep the 
ground loose and moist, and enable them to roam freely ; 
and the water brings the earth in contact with the roots, 
.'md prevents them from becoming mouldy. Keep the 
ground free of grass as far as the roots extend ; for these 
exhaust the moisture and nutriment necessary to the 
plant, and exclude from the roots air and heat, the indis- 
pensable agents to vigorous growth. Treat your trees 
as you would favorite corn hills which you wish to make 
the most of, except give them no unrotted dung. Wash- 
ing with a strong ley in May will destroy insects, and 
promote the health and vigor of your trees. 

To persons living remote, or who are unable to obtain 
their trees for early spring planting, we recommend that 
they procure them in the autumn, and lay them in hy tlie 
heel^ as nurserymen technically term it, which is merely 
to dig a trench on a dry piece of ground, laying the earth 
on one side — the trench wide enough to contain the 
roots ; put the roots into this, close together, letting the 
stocks rest in an inclined position upon the bank of 
earth, and then cover the roots and a part of the stocks 
with earth. In this way they escape injury from the 
frosts of winter, and are in readiness for early planting 
in the spring. Besides, better plants are generally ob- 
tained in the autumn than in the spring, after nurseries 
have been culled. 


"The whole ground of an orchard should be dug in 
the autumn, and laid up in a rough state for the winter, 
giving it as much surface as possible in order that the 
weather may fully act upon and meliorate the soil; thus 
following it as far as the case will admit. Observe to 
dig carefully near to the trees, and so as not to hurt 
their roots and fibres. If the soil be shallow, and if 


these lie near to the surface, it would be advisable to 
dig with a fork, instead of the spade. 

Crop to within two feet of the trees the first year: a 
yard the second; four feet the third, and so on, until 
finally relinquished; which, of course, would be against 
the eighth year, provided the trees were planted at 30 
or 40 feet apart, with early bearing sorts between. Br 
this time, if the kinds have been well chosen, the tem- 
porary trees will be in full bearing, and will forthwith 
defray every necessary expense. 


Very few persons seem to be aware of the importance 
of giving proper form to the young tree, or mending or 
improving its shape, at a later period. In the peach it 
is ruinous, sooner or later, to encourage two or more 
leading and principal branches, from the main stem; let 
them grow ever so straight and upright, they constantly 
recede by the pressure of repellant branches, and by 
the weight of fruit; until, after having nursed them to 
maturity, on the first windy day, you have the mortifica- 
tion to find it split at the crotch, and one or both 
branches ruined, perhaps at the moment of the ripen- 
ing of the fruit. 

The peach is peculiarly liable to this misfortune, as 
the seam at the crotch adheres with less tenacity than 
any other tree cultivated. 

The same doctrine holds good with the plum and 
nectarine, but with less force, and in fact, there is but 
one shape that is to be tolerated, with trees that are 
allowed their full growtb, and not restrained, or trained 
in any way; and that form is a straight centre stem, 
from the root to the terminate bud, with branches al- 
ternately projecting at judicious distances, both around 
the circumference, and the whole line of ascent, allow- 
ing no one to gain the advantage of another in excess, 
but by proper retarding cr encouragement, so to man- 
age, as they shall present a cone, beautiful in sbape, 
and strong to resist the wind, rains, and heavy weights 
of foliage and fruit. 


Quince trees, by proper attention, may be made to 
have straight handsome bodies, and fine expanding reg- 
ular tops, instead of the crooked, craggy, sprawUng 
bushes, so generally cultivated. 

It is also a great mistake to trim the stems of young 
trees too high, causing them to shoot up to premature 
height'^, become top-heavy, and liable to be blown over, 
or badly leaned from their perpendicular and true 
position; which causes them to need staking, and tying, 
whereby they are apt to become chafed, and frequently 

Trees in town gardens, which are situated between 
high houses and barns, are peculiarly liable to misfor- 
tune by wind, which is caused to whiffle, whirl and eddy 
about with such force, as often to do great damage; in 
all such cases thcv should be allowed to send out limbs 
lower down, in regular order, with a straight centre, 
and handsome shape. 

When peach trees get large and over-grown, or when 
they are apparently going backward from age, they can 
again be renewed by cutting off the whole top, at the 
collar next the roots, or at tlie first branching limbs, 
when a great quantity of shoots Vvill put out and form 
handsome clumps, and bear well; indeed it is the Penn- 
sylvania method of serving trees for the first bearing, 
which for seedling kinds do well: cultivated kinds 
should be cut above the graft. Prune all trees at the 
opening of the bud, and if you wish to be nice about it, 
cover the cut with grafters wax, tar or oil paint. 


The following directions for grafting, are given by 
Dr. Deane, in his valuable Georgical Dictionary: 

The methods of grafting are various. The first, 
which is termed Rind or Shoulder grafting, is seldom 
practised but on large trees, where either the head or 
large branches are cut off horizontally, and two or more 
scions put in, according to the size of the branch, or stem; 
in doing this the scions are cut flat on one side, with a 
shoulder to rest upon the crown of the stock; then the 


rind of the stock must be raised up, to admit the scion 
between the wood and the bark of the stock, which musi 
be inserted about two inches, so as that the shoulder of 
the scion may meet, and closely join the crown of the 
stock; and after the number of scions is inserted, the 
whole crown of tlie stock should be well clayed over, 
leaving two eyes of the scions unconnected therewith, 
which will be sufficient for shooting. 

The next method is termed Cleft or Stock grafiing; 
this is practised upon stocks or trees of a smaller size, 
and may be used w^ith success where the rind of the 
stock is not too thick, whereby the inner bark of the scioii 
will be prevented from joining to that of the stock. 
This may be performed on stocks, or branches, that are 
more than one inch in diameter: The head of the 
stock, or branch, must be cut off, with a slope, and a 
slit made the contrary way, in the top of the slope, 
iF^ep enough to receive the scion, w^hich should be cut 
sloping like a wedge, so as to fit the slit made in the 
stock; being careful to leave that side of tlic wedge 
which is to be placed outward much thicker than the 
other. Ai/d in putting the scion into the slit of tlie 
stock, there must be great care taken to join the rind of 
the scion to that of the stock; for if these do ix)t unite 
the grafts will not succeed. 

A third method which is termed Whip, or 'j'ongue 
grafting, is performed on small stocks by cutting off 
the head of the stocks sloping; then there must ]je a 
notch made in the s^lope toward the upper part down- 
ward, a little more than half an inch deep, to receive 
the scion, which must be cut with a slope upwards, and 
a slit made in the slope like a tongue, which tongue' 
must be inserted into the slit made in the slope of the 
stock, so as that the two rinds of both scion and stock 
may be equal and join together exactly. Then there 
should be a ligature to fasten the scion, so that it may 
not easily be displaced. 


"This is commonly practised," says Mr. Miller, ''up- 
on all sorts of stone fruit in particular, such as peaches, 



nectarines, cherries, plums, &c. as also upon oranges 
and jasmines, and is preferable to any sort of grafting. 
Tile method of performing it is as follows: You must 
be provided with a sharp penknife, having a flat haft, 
(the use of which is to raise the bark of the stock to 
admit the bud ,) and some sound bass mat, which should 
he soaked in water, to increase its strength, and make 
it more pliable; then having taken off the cuttings of 
the tree you are to propagate, you should choose a 
smooth part of the stock about five or six inches above 
the surface of the ground, if designed for dwarfs; but 
if for standards, they should be budded six feet above 
ground; then with your knife make a horizontal cut 
across the rind of the stock, and from the middle of that 
cut make a slit downwards about two inches in length, 
so that it may be in the form of T; but you must be 
careful not to cut too deep, lest you wound the stock. 
Then having cut off the leaf from the bad, leaving the 
foot stock remaining, you should make a cross cut 
about half an inch below the eye, and with your knife 
slit off the bud, with part of the wood to it. This 
done, you must, with your knife pull oiF that part of 
the wood which was taken with the bud, observing 
whether the eye of the bud be left to it or not, (for 
all those buds which lose their eyes in stripping should 
be thrown away, being good for nothing.) Then, hav- 
ing gently raised the bark of the stock where the cross 
incision was made, with the flat haft of your penknife, 
cleave the bark from tlie wood, and thrust the bud 
therein, observing to place it smooth between the rind 
and the wood of the stock, cutting olF any part of 
the rind belonging to the bud, which may be too long 
for the slit made in the stock: And so having exactly 
fitted the bud to the stock, you must tie them closely 
j'ound Avith bass mat, beginning at (he under part of the 
slit, and so proceed to the top, taking care that you do 
not bind round tlie eye of the bud, which should be left 

"When your buds have been inoculated three weeks 
or a month, you will see which of them have taken, 
those of them whicli appear shrivelled and black being 


dead, but those which remam fresh and plump you 
may depend are joined. At this time you should loosen 
the bandage, which, if not done in time, will pinch the 
stock, and greatly injure, if not destroy, the bud. 

"The March following,'' (perhaps April in this coun- 
try,) "you must cut off the stock close to the bud, 
sloping it that the wet may pass off, and not enter the 
stock. To this part of the stock, left above the bud, 
it is very proper to fasten the shoot which the bud 
makes in summer, to secure it from being blown out; 
but this part of the stock must continue on no longer 
than until the bud has acquired strength to support 
itself, after which it must be cut off close above the 
bud that the stock may be covered thereby. 

"The time for inoculating is from the middle of 
June to the middle of September, according to the for- 
w^ardness of the season, and the particular sorts of 
trees to be inoculated, which may be easily known by 
trying the buds, whether they will come off well from the 
wood. But the most general rule is, when you observe 
the buds formed at the extremity of the same year's 
shoots, which is a sign of their having finished their 
spring growth." 


With a sharp knife cut a ring round the limb or 
small branch which you wish should bear, near the 
stem or large bough where it is joined: let this ring or 
cut penetrate to the wood. A quarter of an inch from 
this cut, make a second like the first, encircling the 
branch like a ring a quarter of an inch broad between 
these two cuts. This bark, between these two cuts, 
must be removed clean down to the wood ; even the fine 
inner bark, which lies immediately upon the wood, must 
be scraped away, until the bare naked wood appears, 
white and smooth, so that no connexion whatever re- 
mains between the two parts of the bark. The barking 
or girdling must be made at the precise time when, in 
all nature, the buds are strongly sweirmg, or about 


breaking out into blossom. In the same year, a callous 
is formed at the edges of the ring, on both sides, and 
the connexion of the bark is again restored, without 
any detriment to the tree or the branch operated upon. 
By this simple operation, the following advantages will 
be obtained: 1. Every young tree of which you do not 
know the sort, is compelled to show its fruit, and decide 
sooner whether it may remain in its present state or 
require to be grafted. 2. You may thereby, with cer- 
tainty, get fruit of a good sort, and reject the more 
ordinary. The branches so operated upon are hung 
full of fruit, while others, that arc not ringed, often have 
none, or very little on them. This effect is explained 
from the theory of the sap. As this ascends in the 
wood and descends in the bark, the above operation 
will not prevent the sap rising into the upper part of the 
branch, but it will prevent its descending below this 
cut, by which means it will be retained in and dis- 
tributed througli the upper part of the branch in a 
greater portion than it could otherwise be, and the 
branch and fruit will both increase in size much more 
than those that are not thus treated. The twisting of a 
wire or tying a strong thread round a branch has often 
been recommended as a means of making it bear fruit. 
In this case, as in ringing the bark, the descent of the 
sap in the bark must be impeded above the ligature, 
and more nutritive matter is consequently retained, and 
applied to the expanding parts. The wire or ligature 
may remain in the bark. 

Mr. Knight's theory of the motion of sap in trees, is, 
'•that the sap is absorbed from the soil, by the bark of 
the roots, and carried upwards by the alburnum of the 
roots, trunk, and branches: that it passes through the 
central vessels into the succulent matter of the annual 
shoots, the leaf-stalk, and leaf; and that it is returned 
to the bark through certain vessels of the leaf-stalk, 
and descending through the bark, contributes to the 
process of forming the wood.** 

A writer in the American Farmer says, he tried the ex- 
periment of ringing some apple, peach, pear, and quince 
trep« on small limbs, sav from an inch to an inch and a 


quarter in diameter. The result was, the apples, 
peaches, *• and pears were double the size on those 
branches than on any other part of the trees: in the 
quinces there was no difference. One peach, the 
heath, measured on a ringed limb, in circumference 
11 1-4 inches round, and 11 3-4 inches round the ends, 
and weighed 15 ounces. The limbs above the ring 
have grown much larger than those below it. 

[Thacher's Orchardist, 

new: mode of grafting. 

When the trees begin to show their fruit, (no matter 
what kind,) and it is evident that grafting must be 
resorted to, or we must patiently put up with an inferior 
kind ; instead of cutting off the top, uncover the roots, 
and choosing the most thrifty one, make a slit in the 
bark, cut your scion off with a slope, and thrust it in and 
cover tlie roots with earth. It will take well, and grow 
some the first year, much more the next, and the third 
year the old stock may be cut away, and the growth 
from that time on will be very rapid, and soon form a 
good bearing tree. 


A horticulturist in Bohemia has a beautiful planta- 
tion of the best sort of apple-trees, which have neither 
sprung from seeds nor grafting. His plan is to take 
shoots from the choicest sorts, insert them into a pota- 
to, and plunge both into the ground, leaving but an inch 
or two of the shoots above the surface. The potato 
nourishes the shoot, whilst it pushes out roots, and the 
shoots gradually spring up and become a beautiful 
tree, bearing the best of fruit without requiring to be 


The quickest method of procuring grapes, is to graft 
into the body, near the ground, or which is preferable, 
into the roots of large vines. In the following year, if 


the graft has taken, fruit will be produced. Thus 
every farmer, who has wild vines growing on hfs ground, 
may, by procuring cuttings of hardy foreign or native 
kind, and paying a little attention to the grafting and 
training, be soon and amply supplied with grapes for 
market and wine making. 


The cheapest and most suitable remedy for wounds 
upon trees, occasioned by pruning, is Spanish brown 
paint, a little thicker than pa.inters generally use. Lay 
it on with a brush and take care to cover the wounded 
part thoroughly. This will effectually exclude the air 
and weather, and nature's healing process will soon 
perform the cure. 


Put peach, apricot, plum and cherry stones, and pear 
and quince seeds into the ground, two or three inches 
below the surface, cover them with earth, and then lay 
over them a course of well rotted manure. I have 
always succeeded in producing an abundant crop, ex- 
cept in one instance of planting of peach stones, and 
another of pear seeds; the non-success of the former I 
imputed to the dryness of the soil, and that of the lat- 
ter to the destruction of the seed in the pumice, it 
having remained in barrels several days, and probably 
underwent some fermentation. I should advise the 
planting of fruit stones and seeds in a moist but not a 
wet soil. 


The honorable Timothy Pickering has communicated 
to the Massachusetts Agricultural Society an eligible 
method of exterminating caterpillars, more especially 
when their nests are constructed on the extreme bran- 
ches of large trees not accessible by ladders. It con- 
sists of a brush made of hog's bristles introduced 
between two stiff v/ires, closelv twisted, ?iniilar to the 


common brush for cleaning the inside of bottles. A 
piece of wire full one tenth of an inch in diameter, 
about three feet long, doubled, and leaving a small loop 
in the middle, is closely twisted for the length of about 
eight or ten inches from the loop; and then the bristles 
being introduced between the remainder of the two 
branches of the wire, and these closely twisted upon 
them, the bristles are immoveably fixed; and thus is 
formed, after being uniformly sheared, a cylindrical 
brush, about six inches long and two and a half in 
diameter. This brush is fastened to the end of a long 
pole, having a groove about seven or eight inches long 
at the small end, in which the twisted wire of the brush 
was laid and bound on with strings. In using the 
brush, press it on the nest, and turning the pole in the 
hand the web is entangled with the bristles and remo- 
ved; or otherwise, you rub the fork of the limb inside 
and outside with the brush, when the nest and worms 
are surely killed or brought down. The pole may be 
longer or shorter according to the distance which you 
have to reach. Numerous other methods have been 
from time to time suggested for the destruction of these 
vermin, but they may be destroyed with great facility 
by a little industry with the hand or the brush, if re- 
peated two or three times a week during their season. 
It has recently been ascertained that some of the insects 
or millers which deposit their eggs from which the 
caterpillar is produced, are left in the old nests after 
the caterpillars have deserted them in the month of 
June. The destruction of old nests therefore, and the 
insects contained in them, before they have time to 
deposit their eggs in August for the next year, will 
prove the most effectual method of destroying these 
troublesome vermin for all future seasons and eventu- 
ally of annihilating the whole tribe. 



Apple trees, to raise from cuttings, 117 

Bags in a garden, an effectual way to 

destroy, 87 

Budding or Inoculating,' • - 113 

Composts for Plants, to make, - 51 

Caterpillars on fruit trees, to destroy, 118 

Directions for making flower-gardens, 87 

IDirections for attending to gardening 
in January, - 
April, - 
May, - ^ 


July, . - 

August, - 
December, .... 

Directions for cultivating the follow- 
ing garden vegetables, viz: 
" Artichokes, .... 
" Asparagus, .... 

" Beans, 

English dwarf. 
Kidney dwarfs or snaps, 
Pole or running, 

" Beet, 

Sir John Sinclair, • 
Mangel VVurtzel, 

•' Bene Plant, .... 

" Borecole, .... 

** Brussels Sprouts, 

" Brocoli, 

" Cabbage, 

" Cow Cabbage. 

" Carrot, 

" Cauliflower, 

'• Cucumber, 

" Celery, 

" Cress, 

" Currant, 

" Endive or Succory, 

" Egg Plant, - 









Top or tree, 

Potato, Irish, 

" Sweet, 

Parsnep, . . - - 
Peas, .... 
Bishop's early prolific, 
Woodford's new tali do 
Pepper, .... 




Salsify, - 



Summer Savory, 








- 82 


*' Tomato, - 
" Turnip, 

" Vegetable Oyster, 

Fruit and fruit trees, to cultivate, - 
Fruit trees, to force to blossom and 

bear fruit, 

Grafting or Engrafting, 

" Now mode of, - • - 
Grapes, the quickest way to procure. 






Hawthorn hedge or live fences, to make, 97 
Hot beds, to form, - - • - 50 
Kitchen garden, to make, • • 56 
Orchard grounds, to manage, • 110 

Plants, when and how to water, 86 

Plaster for trees, .... 118 

Pruning, HI 

Plants, to preserve from degenera- 
cy, <S-f- 59 

Seeds, to select, - • - • j1 

'« to germinate, - - - 55 

" to plant, • • • - 118 

Soil for a kitchen garden, to select, 49 

" Preparation of, ... 50 

Transplanting, directions for, - 109 

Vegetables, to preserve, - - - 60 

" To increase the number and 

improve the qualities of, 58 
" To improve and increase parts 

of, .... 59 



In the variety of female acquirements, though do- 
mestic occupations stand not so high in esteem as they 
formerly did, yet when neglected, they produce much 
human misery. There was a time when ladies knew 
nothing beyond their own famii}- concerns; but in the 
present day, there are many who know nothing about 
them. Each of these extremes should he avoided: but 
is there no way to unite in the female character, culti- 
vation of talents and habits of usefulness? Happil) 
there are still great numbers in every situation, whose 
example proves that this is possible. Instances may bo 
found of ladies in the higher walks of life, who conde- 
scend to examine the accounts of their house steward; 
and, by overlooking and wisely directing the expendi- 
ture of tliat part of their husband's income which falls 
under their own inspection, avoid the inconvenience 
of embarrassed circumstances. 

If a lady has never been accustomed, while single, 
to think of family management, let her not upon that 
account fear that she cannot attain it; she may consull 
others who are more experienced, and acquaint herself 
with the necessary quantities of the several articles of 
121 L 


family expenditure, in proportion to the number it con- 
sists of, the proper prices to pay, &c. &c. 

A minute account of annual income, and the times 
of payment, should be taken in writing; likewise an 
estimate of the supposed amount of each article of 
expense; and those who are early accustomed to calcu- 
lations on domestic articles, will acquire so accurate a 
knowledge of what their establishment requires, as 
will give them the happy medium between prodiga- 
lity and parsimony, without acquiring the character of 

Many families have owed their prosperity full as 
much to the propriety of female management, as to the 
knowledge and activity of the father. 

The following hints may be useful as well as 'eco- 

Every article should be kept in the place best suited 
to it, as much waste may be thereby avoided. "Have 
a place for every thing, and keep every thing in its 

Vegetables will keep best on a stone floor, if the air 
be excluded. — Meat in a cold dry place. — Sugar and 
sweetmeats require a dry place; so does salt. — Candles, 
cold, but not damp. — Dried meats, hams, &;c. the 
same. All sorts of seeds for puddings, saloop, rice, &c. 
should be close covered, to preserve from insects; but 
that will not prevent it, if long kept. 

Bread is now so heavy an article of expense, that all 
waste should be guarded against; and having it cut in 
the room will tend much to prevent it. — Since the 
scarcity in 1795 and 1800, that custom has been much 
adopted. It should not be cut until a day old. Earth- 
en pans and covers keep it best. 

Straw to lay apples on should be quite dry, to pre- 
vent a musty taste. 

Basil, savory, or knotted marjojum, or thyme to be 
used when herbs are ordered; but with discretion, as 
they are very pungent. 

Some of the lemons and oranges used for juice should 
be pared first to preserve the peel dry; some should be 
halved, and when squeezed, the pulp cut out, and the 


outside dried for grating. If for boiling in any liquid, 
the first way is best. When these fruits are cheap, a 
proper quantity should be bought and prepared ivs 
above directed, especially by those who live in the 
country, where they cannot always be had; and they 
are perpetually wanted in cookery. 

When whites of eggs are used for jelly, or other pur- 
poses, contrive to have pudding, custard, &c. to employ 
the yolks also. Should you not want them for several 
hours, beat them up with a little water, and put them 
in a cool place, or they will be hardened and useless. — 
It is a mistake of old, to think that the whites made 
cakes and puddings heavy; on the contrary, if beaten 
long and separately, they contribute greatly to give 
lightness, are an advantage to paste, and make a pretty 
dish beaten with fruit, to set in cream, &c. 

If copper utensils be used in the kitchen, the cook 
should be charged to be very careful not to let the tin 
be rubbed off, and to have them fresh done when the 
least defect appears, and never to put by any soup, 
gravy, &c. in them, or any metal utensil; stone and 
earthen vessels should be provided for those purposes, 
as likewise plenty of common dishes, that the table-set 
may not be used to put by cold meat. 

Tin vessels if kept damp, soon rust, which causes 
holes. Fenders, and tin linings of flower-pots, &c. 
should be painted every year or two. 

Vegetables soon sour, and corrode metals and glazed 
red v/are, by which a strong poison is produced. Some 
years ago the death of several gentlemen was occasion- 
ed at Salt-hill, by the cook sending a ragout to the 
table, which she had kept from the preceding day in a 
copper vessel badly tinned. Vinegar, by its acidity 
does the same, the glazing being of lead or arsenic. 

The best way of scalding fruits, or boiling vinegar, is 
in a stone jar on ajiot iron hearth: or by putting the 
vessel in a saucepan of water, called a waterbath. 

If chocolate, coffee, jelly, gruel, bark, &c. be suffer- 
ed to boil over, the strength is lost. 

In the following and indeed all other receipts, though 
the quantities may be as accurately directed as possible. 


yet much must be left to the discretion of the per- 
son who uses them. The dilforent tastes of people 
require more or less of the flavor of spices, salt, garlic, 
butter, <fec. which can never be ordered by general 
rules; and if the cook has not a good taste, and atten- 
tion to that of her employers, not all the ingredients 
which nature and art can furnish, will give exquisite 
flavor to her dishes. The proper articles should be at 
hand, and she must proportion them until the true zest 
be obtained, and a variety of flavor be given to the dif- 
ferent dishes served at the same time. 

Those who require maigre dishes will find abundance 
in this work; and where they are not strictly so, by 
suet or bacon being directed into the stuflings, the cook 
must use butter instead thereof; and where meat 
gravies (or stock, as they are called) are ordered, those 
made of fish must be adopted. 


Venison, — If the fat be clear; bright, and thick, and 
the cleft part smooth and close, it is young; but if the 
cleft is wide and tough, it is old. 

Beef, — If the flesh of ox-beef is young, it will have 
a fine, smooth, open grain, be of good red, and feei 
tender. The fat should look white rather than yellow; 
for when that is of a deep color, the meat is seldom 
Kood: beef fed by oil cakes is in general so, and the 
ilesh is flabby. 

VeaL — The flesh of a bull-calf is the firmest, but not 
so white. The fillet of a cow-calf is generally prefer- 
red to the udder. The whitest is the most juicy, having 
been made so by frequent bleeding, and having had 
whiting to lick. 

Mutton, — Choose this by the fineness of its grain, 
irood color, and firm white fat. 

Lamb, — Observe the neck of a fore quarter; if the 
vein is bluish, it is fresh; if it has a green or yellow 
cast, it is stale. 

Pork, — Pinch the lean, and if 3'oung it will break. 
If the rind is tough, thicl:, and cannot easily be im- 


pressed by the finger, it is old. A thin rind is a merit 
in all pork. When fresh, the flesh will be smooth and 
cool; if clammy, it is tainted. 

Bacon, — If the rind is thin, the fat firm, and of a red 
tinge, the lean tender, of a good color, and adhering to 
the bone, you may conclude it good, and not old. 

Hams. — Stick a sharp knife under the bone: if it 
comes out with a pleasant smell, the ham is good; but 
if the knife be daubed and has a bad scent, do not 
buy it. 

Fowls, — The combs and legs are smooth when the fowl 
is young, and rough when it is old. 

Geese, — The bills and feet of geese should be yellow 
and have but few hairs upon them. Their feet will be 
pliable when fresh or recently killed, and dry and stitF 
when they have been killed a long time. 

Ducks, — The breast should be hard and plump, feet 
supple. The feet of a tame duck are yellowish, those 
of a wild one are reddish. 

Pigeons, — They should be eaten while they are fresh; 
when thev look flabbv and discolored about the under 
part, they have been kept too long. 

Partridges, — These birds have yellow legs, a.nd a 
dark colored bill when young. They are not in season 
till after the first of September. 


Cooking is elfccted by various methods, of which 
boiling is the most common, but the most objectionable; 
as it deprives flesh of its nutritious juice. A better 
mode of dressing animal food is roasting^ by which its 
strength is less dissipated; because a crust is soon for- 
med on its surface, that more etfectually preserves the 
nutritive particles from evaporation. Hence one pound 
of roasted meat is in real nourishment, equal to double 
that quantity of boiled animal food. 

Many substances, though possessed of salubrious 
qualities, are rendered unwholesome by the refinements 
of cookery. By compounding several incongi'uous in- 
gredients to produce a poiejnant sauce, or ricli soup, 



t!ie cook frequently forms compositions that are almost 
poisonous. Thus, high seasoning of every kind, pickles 
and the like, merely stimulate the palate, and cannot 
iiiil to injure the stomach. Hence, the plainest dishes 
are uniformly the most conducive to health, while they 
are most easily digested. This self-evident proposition 
is acknowledged by every reflecting person, but gives 
the least satisfaction to the epicure, who consults his taste 
before he appeals to his warped understanding. 

Animal food is generally boiled in half open vessels, 
instead of which, close utensils only ought to be em- 
ployed ibr that purpose. We therefore recommend 
the process called stewing; as it is not only the most 
wholesome mode of dressing meat, but at the same time 
well adapted to retain and concentrate the most sub- 
stantial parts of animal food. The utility of preparing 
victuals after this method having been generally ac- 
knowledged, we shall pay particular attention to it. 

Various other methods will also be given, to enable 
the cook to pursue the most convenient course. 


This most simple of culinary processes is not often 
performed in perfection, though it does not require so 
much nicety and attendance as roasting; to skim the 
pot well, and to keep it moderately boiling, and to 
know how long the joint requires, comprehends the 
most useful points of this branch of cookery. The cook 
must take especial care that the water really boils all 
the while she is cooking, or she will be deceived in the 
time. An adept cook will manage with much less fire 
for boiling than she uses for roasting, and to last all 
the time without much mending. When the water 
is coming to a boil there will always rise from the 
cleanest meat a scum to the top; this must be carefully 
taken off as soon as it appears, for on this depends the 
good appearance of a boiled dinner. When you have 
skimmed it well, put in a little cold water, which will 
throw up the rest of it. If let alone, it soon boils down 
and sticks to the meat, which, instead of looking white 


and healthful, will have a coarse and uninviting 

Many cooks put in milk to make what they boil look 
white, but this does more harm than good ; others wrap 
the meat in a cloth; but if it is well skimmed it will 
have a much more delicate appearance than when it is 
muffled up. 

Put the meat into cold water in the proportion of 
about a quart to every pound of meat; it should remain 
covered during the whole process of boiling. Water 
beyond what is absolutely necessary renders the meat 
less savoury and weakens the broth. 

The water should be gradually heated according to 
the thickness, &c. of the article boiled; for instance, a 
leg of mutton of 10 lbs. weight should be placed over a 
moderate fire, which will gradually heat the water 
without causing it to boil, for about forty minutes. If 
the water boils much sooner, the meat will be hardened, 
and shrink up as if it were scorched. Reckon the time 
from its first coming to a boil; the slower it boils the 
tenderer, the plumper, and whiter it will be. For 
tiiose who choose their food thoroughly cooked, twenty 
minutes to a pound will not be found too much for 
gentle simmering by the side of the fire. Fresh killed 
meat will take much longer time boiling than that 
Avhich has been kept till what the butchers call ripe; 
if it be fresh killed it will be tough and hard if stewed 
ever so long, and ever so gently. The size of the 
boiling pots should be adapted to what they are to con- 
tain; in small families we recommend block tin sauce- 
pans, &c. as lightest and safest, taking care that the 
covers fit close, otherwise the introduction of smoke 
may be the means of giving the meat .a bad taste. 
Beef and mutton a little underdone is not a great fault, 
but lamb, pork, and veal are uneatable and truly un- 
wholesome, if not thoroughly 'boiled. Take care of 
the liquor in which poultry or meat has been boiled, as 
an addition of peas, herbs, ^c. will convert it into a 
nourishing soup. 




This is one of the cheapest and most convenient ways 
of dressing a dinner in small families, and although the 
general superiority of roasting must be allowed, still 
certain joints and dishes, such as legs and loins of pork, 
legs and shoulders of mutton, and tillets of veal, will 
bake to great advantage, if the meat be good. Besides 
those joints above mentioned, we shall enumerate a few 
baked dishes which may be particularly recommended. 

A pig when sent to the baker prepared for baking, 
should have his ears and tail covered with buttered pa- 
per, and a bit of butter tied up in a piece of linen to 
baste the back with, otherwise it will be apt to blister. 
If well baked it is considered equal to a roasted one. 

A goose prepared the same as for roasting, or a duck 
placed upon a stand and turned, as soon as one side is 
done, upon the other, are equally good. 

A buttock of beef, prepared as follows, is particularly 
fine: after it has been put in salt about a week, let it 
be well washed and put into a brown earthen pan with 
a pint of water; cover the pan tight over with two or 
three thicknesses of cap paper, and give it four or five 
hours in a moderately heated oven. 

A ham, if not too old, put in soak for an hour, taken 
out and baked in a moderately heated oven, cuts fuller 
of gravy, and of a finer flavor than a boiled one. 

Cod fish, haddock, and mackerel, should have a dust 
of flour and some bits of butter spread over them. Eels 
when large and stuffed, herrings and sprats, are put in 
a brown pan, with vinegar and a little spice, and tied 
over with paper. 

A hare, prepared the same as for roasting, with a 
few bits of butter and a little milk, put into the dish 
and basted several times, will be found nearly equal to 
roasting: in the same manner legs and shins of beef 
will be equally good with proper vegetable seasoning. 


The first thing requisite for roasting is to have a 
strong steady fire, or a clear brisk one, according to the 


size and weight of the joint that is put down to the 
spit. A cook, who does not attend to this, will prove 
herself totally incompetent to roast victuals properly. 
All roasting should be done open to the air, to ventilate 
the meat from its gross fumes, otherwise it will become 
baked instead of roasted. The joint should be put 
down at such a distance fj-oni the fire as to imbibe the 
heat rather quickly, otherwise its plumpness and good 
quality will be gradully dried up, and it will turn 
shrivelly, and look meagre. When the meat is first 
put down, it is necessary to see that it balances well on 
the spit, otherwise the process of cooking will be very 
troublesome. When it is warm, begin to baste it well, 
which prevents the nutritive juice escaping; and, if 
required, additional dipping must be used for that 

As to sprinkling with salt while roasting, most able 
cooks dispense with it, as the penetrating particles of 
the salt have a tendency to draw out the animal juices; 
however, a little salt thrown on, when first laid down, is 
sometimes necessary, with strong meats. When the 
smoke draws towards the fire, and the dropping of the 
clear gravy begins, it is a sure sign that the joint is near- 
ly done. Then take off the paper, baste well, and 
dredge it with flour, v.hich brings on that beautiful 
brownness which makes roasted meats look so inviting. 

With regard to the time necessary for roasting various 
meats, it will vary according to the different sorts, the 
time it has been kept, and the temperature of the 
weather. In summer, twenty minutes may be reckoned 
equal to half an hour in winter. A good skreen, to keep 
off the chilling current of air, is essentially useful. — 
The old housewife's rule is to allow rather more than a 
<|uarter of an hour to each pound, and in most instances 
it proves practically correct. 

In roasting mutton or lamb, the loin, the chine, and 
the saddle, must have the skin raised and skewered on; 
and, when nearly done, take off this skin, and baste and 
flour to froth it up. 

Veal requires roasting brown, and if a fillet or loin, 
be sure to paper the fat, that as little of it may be lost 


as possible. When nearly done, baste it with butter 
and dredge with flour. 

Pork should be well done. When roasting a loin, 
cut the skin across with a sharp knife, otherwise the 
crackling is very awkward to manage. Stuff the 
knuckle part with sage and onion, and skewer it up. — 
Put a little drawn gravy in the dish, and serve it up with 
apple sauce in a tureen. A spare-rib should be basted 
with a little butter, a little dust of flour, and some sage 
and onion shred small. Apple sauce is the only one 
which suits this dish. 

Wild fowls require a clear brisk fire, and should be 
roasted till they are of a light brown, but not too much; 
yet it is a common fault to roast them till the gravy runs 
out, thereby losing their fine flavor. 

Tame fowls require more roasting, as the heat is 
longer in penetrating; they sliould be often basted, in 
order to keep up a strong froth, and to improve their 

Pigs and geese should be thoroughly roasted before 
a good fire, and turned quickly. 

Hares and rabi)its require time and care, especially to 
have the ends sufticiently done, and to remedy that raw 
discolouring at the neck, &c. which proves often so 
objectionable at table. 


Mutton. — A leg of 8 lbs. will require two hours and 
a half. A chine or saddle of 10 or 11 lbs. two hours and 
a half. A shoulder of 7 lbs. one hour and a half. A 
loin of 7 lbs. one hour and three quarters. A neck and 
breast, about the same time as a loin. 

Beef, — The sirloin of 15 lbs. from three hours and 
three-quarters to four hours. Ribs of beef from 15 to 
"iO lbs. will take three hours to three hours and a half. 

Veal. — A fillet from 1*2 to 16 lbs. will take from four 
to five hours, at a good fire. A loin, upon the average, 
will take tlirce hours. A shoulder from three hours to 
tlirec hours and a half. A neck, two hours. Abreast, 
from an hour and a half to two hours. 


Lamb, — Hind quarter of 8 lbs. will take from an hour 
and three-quarters to two hours. Fore quarter of 10 
lbs. about two hours. Leg of 5 lbs. from an hour and 
a quarter to an hour and a half. Shoulder, or breast, 
with a quick fire, an hour. 

Pork, — A leg of 8 lbs. will require about three hours. 
Griskin, an hour and a half. A spare-rib of 8 or 9 
lbs. will take from two hours and a half to three hours, 
to roast it thoroughly. A bald spare-rib of 8 lbs. an 
hour and a quarter. A loin of 5 lbs. if very fat, from 
two hours to two hours and a half. A sucking pig, of 
three weeks old, about an hour and a half. 

Poultry/. — A very large turkey will require about 
three hours; one of 10 lbs. two hours; a small one an 
hour and a half. 

A full-grown fowl, an hour and a quarter; a moder- 
ate sized one an hour. 

A pullet, from half an hour to 40 minutes. 

A goose, full grown, from an hour and a half to two 

A green goose, 40 minutes. 

A duck, full size, from 30 to 50 minutes. 

Venison, — A buck haunch which weighs from 20 to 
25 lbs. will take about four hours and a half roasting: 
one from 12 to 18 lbs. will take three hours and a 



Choose a piece of thick flank of a fine heifer or ox — 
cut into long slices some fat bacon, but quite free from 
yellow; let each bit be near an inch thick; dip them 
into vinegar, and then into a seasoning ready prepared, 
of salt, black pepper, alspice, and a clove, all in a fine 
powder, with parsley, chives, thyme, savoury, and knot- 
ted marjorum, shred as small as possible, and well 
mixed. With a sharp knife make holes deep enough 
to let in the larding, then rub the beef over with the 
seasoning, and bind it up tight with tape. Set it in a 
well tinned pot over a fire or rather stove: three or 


four onions must be fried brown and put to the beef, 
with two or three carrots, one turnip, a head or two of 
celery, and a small quantity of water, let it simmer 
gently ten or twelve hours, or till extremely tender, 
turning the meat twice. 

Put the gravy into a pan, remove the fat, keep the 
beef covered, then put them together, and add a glasis 
of port wine. Take off the tape, and serve with the 
vegetable: or you may strain them off, and send them 
up cut into dice for garnish. Onions roasted, and then 
stewed with the gravy, are a great improvement. A 
tea cup full of vinegar should be stewed with the beef. 


Take a nice bit of lean beef; lard it with bacon, sea- 
soned with pepper, salt, cloves, mace, and alspice. Put 
it into a stew-pan Avith a pint of broth, a glass of white 
wine, a bundle of parsley, all sorts of sweet herbs, a 
a clove of garlic, a shallot or two, four cloves, pepper 
and salt. When the meat is become tender, cover it 
close, skim the sauce well, and strain it, set it on the 
fire, and let it boil till it is reduced to a glaze. Glaze 
the larded side with this, and seiTe the meat on sorrel- 


Wash it well, and season it high with pepper, Cay- 
enne, salt, alspice, three cloves, and a blade of mace, 
all in fine powder. Bind it up tight, and lay it into a 
pot that will just hold it. Fry three large onions sliced, 
and put them to it, with three carrots, two turnips, a 
shallot, four cloves, a blade of mace, and some celery. 
Clover the meat with good beef broth, or weak gravy. 
Simmer it as gently as possible for several hours, till 
quite tender. Clear off the fat; and add to the gravy 
half a pint of port wine, a glass of vinegar, and a large 
spoon of catsup. Simmer half an hour, and serve in a 
deep dish. — Half a pint of table-beer may be added. 
The herbs to be used should be burnet, tarragon, pars- 
ley, thyme, basil, savoury, marjorum, pennyroyal, knotted 


marjorum. and some chives, if you can get them, but ob- 
serve to proportion the quantities to the pungency of 
the several sorts — let there be a good handful altogthcr. 
Garnish with carrots, turnips, or truffles and morcJs, 
or pickles of different colors, cut small, and laid in little 
heaps separate: chopped parsley, chives, beet-root, &c. 
If, when done, the gravy is too much to fill tlie dish, 
take only apart to season for serving, but the less water 
the better: and to increase the richness, add a few beef 
bones and shanks of mutton in stewing. A spoonful or 
two of made mustard is a great improvement to the 


Put the part that has the hard fat into a stew 
pot with a small quantity of water; let it boil up, and 
skim it thoroughly; then add carrots, turnips, onions, 
celery, and a few pepper-corns. 8tew it extremely 
tender; then take out the flat bones, and remove all 
the fat from the soup. Either serve that and the meat 
in a tureen, or the soup alone, and the meat on a dish, 
garnished with some vegetables. The following sauc<,> 
is much admired served with the beef: — Take half a 
pint of the soup, and mix it with a spoonful of catsup, a 
glass of port wine, a teaspoonful of made mustard, 
a little flour, a bit of butter and salt; boil altogether a 
few minutes, then pour it round the meat. Chop capers, 
walnuts, red cabbage, pickled cucumbers, and chives or 
parsley, small, but in several heaps over it. 


Salt a bit of brisket, thin part of the flank, or the tops 
of the ribs, with salt and saltpetre five days, then boil it 
gently till extremely tender; put it under a great weight, 
or in a cheese-press, till perfectly cold. It eats excel- 
lently cold, and for sandwiches. 

To a round of beef that weighs twenty-five pounds, 
take three ounces of saltpetre, three ounces of the 



coarsest sugar, an ounce of cloves, a nutmeg, half an 
ounce of alspice, and three handfuls of common salt, 
all in the finest powder. 

The beef should hang two or three days; then rub 
the above well into it, and turn and rub every day for 
two or three weeks. The bone must be taken out at first. 
When to be dressed, dip it into cold water, to take off 
the loose spice, bind it up tight with tape, and put it 
into a pan with a tea-cup full of water at the bottom, 
cover the top of the meat with shred suet, and the pan 
with a brown crust and paper, and bake it five or six 
hours. — When cold take off the paste and tape. 

The gravy is very fine; and a little of it adds greatly 
to the flavor of any hash, soup, &c. — Both the gravy 
and the beef will keep some time. 


Hang three ribs three or four days; take out the 
bones from the whole length, sprinkle it with salt, roll 
the meat tight, and roast it. Nothing can look nicer. 
The above done with spices, &c. and baked as hunter's 
beef, is excellent. 


Choose the thin end of the flank of fine mellow beef, 
but not too fat; lay it into a dish with salt and salt- 
petre, turn and rub it every day for a week, and keep it 
cool. Then take out every bone and gristle, remove 
the skin of the inside part, and cover it thick with the 
following seasoning cut small: — a large handful of pars- 
ley, the same of sage, some thyme, marjorum, and pen- 
nyroyal, pepper, salt, and alspice. Roll the meat up as 
tight as possible, and bind it, then boil it gently for 
seven or eight hours. A cloth must be put round before 
the tape. Put the beef under a good weight while hot, 
without undoing it: the shape will then be oval. Part 
of a breast of veal rolled in with the beef, looks and 
eats very well. 



Should be cut from a rump that has hung a few days. 
Broil them over a very clear or charcoal fire : put into the 
dish a little minced challot, and a table spoonful of cat- 
sup: and rub a bit of butter on the steak the moment of 
serving. It should be turned often, that the gravy may 
not be drawn out on either side. 

This dish requires to be eaten so hot and fresh done, 
that it is not in perfection if served with any thing else. 
Pepper and salt should be added when taking it off 
the fire. 


Strain off the liquor from the oysters, and throw 
them into cold water, to take off the grit, while you 
simmer the liquor with a bit of mace and lemon-peel; 
then put the oysters in, stew them a few minutes, add 
a little cream, if you have it, and some butter rubbed 
in a bit of flour; let them boil up once, and have rump- 
steaks well seasoned and broiled, ready for throwing the 
oyster sauce over, the moment you are to serve. 


Beat them with a little rolling pin, flour and season, 
then fry them with sliced onions, of a fine light brown, 
lay the steaks into a stew-pan, and pour as much boiling 
water over them as will serve for sauce: stew them 
very gently half an hour, and add a spoonful of catsup, 
or walnut liquor, before you serve. 


Cut a fine large steak from a rump that has been well 
hung, or it will do from any tender part: beat it, and 
season with pepper, salt, and an onion: lay it into an 
iron stew-pan that has a cover to fit quite close, and set 
it by the side of the fire without water. Take care it 
does not burn, but it must have a strong heat: in two 
or three hours it will be quite tender, and then serve 
with its own gravy. 



Cut thin slices of beef from the rump, or any other 
tender part, and divide them into pieces three inches 
long; beat them with a blade of a knife, and flour 
them. Fry the collops quick in butter two minutes, 
then lav them into a small stew-pan, and cover them 
with a pint of gravy; add a bit of butter rubbed in 
flour, pepper, salt, the least bit of shallot, shred as fine 
as possible, half a walnut, four small pickled cucumbers, 
a tea-spoonful of capers cut small. Take care that it 
does not boil, and serve the stew in a very hot covered 


8immer them in water several hours, till they will 
peel; then cut the palates into slices, or leave them 
whole, as you choose: and slew them in a rich gravy 
till as tender as possible. Before you serve, season 
them with Cayenne, salt, and catsup. If the gravy was 
drawn clear, add also some butter and flour. 

If to be served white, boii ihem in milk, and stew 
them in fricassee sauce, adding cream, butter, flower and 
mushroom-powder, and a little pounded mace. 


Pound some beef that is underdone with a little fat 
bacon, or ham; season with pepper, salt, and a little 
shallot, or garlic: mix them well, and make it into small 
cakes, three inches long, and half as wide and thick; 
fry them in a light brown, and serve them in a good 
thick gravy. 


Take two poimds of lean beef, rub it with saltpetre, 
and let it lie one night: then salt with common salt, and 
cover with water four days in a small pan. Dry it 
with a cloth, and season with black pepper; lay it into 
as small a pan as will hold it, cover it with coarse 
paste, and bake it five hours in a very cool oven. Put 
no liquor in. 


When cold, pick out the strings and fat; heat the 
meat very fine with a quarter of a pound of fine butter, 
just warm; but not oiled, and as much of the gravy as 
will make it into a paste; put it into very small pots, 
and cover them with melted butter. 


Cut out all the meat, and a little fat, into pieces as 
thick as your finger, and two inches long: dredge il 
with flour; and fry in butter, of a nice brown, drain 
the butter from the meat, and toss it up in a rich gravy, 
seasoned with pepper, salt, anchovy, and challot. Do 
not let it boil on any account. Before you serve, add 
two spoonfuls of vinegar. Garnish with crimped 


Cut the beef into very thin slices, shred a handful of 
parsley very small, cut an onion into quarters, and put 
all together into a stew-pan, with a piece of butler and 
some strong broth; season with salt and pepper, and 
simmer very gently a quarter of an hour; then mix 
into it the yolks of two eggs, a glass of port wine, and 
a spoonful of vinegar; stir it quick, rub the disli with 
shallot, and turn the fricassee into it. 


Cut slices half an inch thick, and four inclies square; 
lay them on forcemeat of crumbs of bread, shallot, a 
little suet, or fat, pepper and salt. Roll them, and 
fasten with a small skewer; put them into a stew-pan 
with some gravy made of beef bones, or the gravy of 
the meat, and a spoonful of water, and stew them till 
tender. Fresh meat will do. 


Shred the underdone part fine, with some of the fat, 
put it into a small stew-pan, with some onion or shallot, 



(a very little will do,) a little water, pepper, and salt; 
])oil it till the onion is quite soft; then put some of the 
i;ravy of the meat to it, and the mince. Do not let it 
l)oil. Have a small hot dish with sippets of bread rea- 
dy, and pour the mince into it, hut first mix a large 
spoonful of vinegar with it; if shallot-vinegar is used, 
there will be no need of the onion nor the raw shallot. 


Do it the same as in the last receipt; only the meat 
is to be in slices, and you may add a spoonful of walnut 
liquor or catsup. 

Observe that it is owing to boiling hash or minces, 
that they get hard. All sorts of stews, or meats dres- 
sed a second time, should be only simmered; and this 
last only hot through. 


Cut a slice of underdone boiled beef three inches 
thick, and a little fat; stew it in half a pint of Avater, 
a glass of white w^ine, a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, 
and a bay leaf; season it with three cloves pounded, and 
pepper, till the liquor is nearly wasted away, turning it 
once. When cold, serve it. Strain off the gravy, and 
mix it v*ith a little vinegar for sauce. 


Should be carefully salted, and wet with the pickle 
for eight or ten days. The bone should be cut out first, 
and the beef skewered and tied up, to make it quite 
round. It may be stuffed with parsley if approved; in 
which case the holes to admit the parsley must be made 
with a sharp ])ointed knife, and the parsley coarsely 
cut, and stuffed in tight. — As soon as it boils it should 
be skimmed, and afterwards kept boiling very gently. 


Take tlie inside of a large sirloin, soak it in a glass 
of port wine and a glass of vinegar mixed, for forty- 
eight hours: liave ready a \qv\ fine stuffing, and bind it 


up tight. Roast it on a hang;ing spit, and baste it with 
a glass of port wine, the same quantity of vinegar, and 
a teaspoonful of pounded alspice. — Larding improves 
the look and flavor: serve with rich gravy in the dish; 
currant-jelly and melted butter in tureens. 


After cleaning the tongue well, salt it with common 
salt and saltpetre three days; then boil it, and likewise 
a fine young udder with some fat to it, till tolerably 
tender; then tie the thick part of one to the thin part 
of the other, and roast the tongue and udder. 

Serve them with good gravy, and currant-jelly sauce. 
A few cloves should be stuck in the udder. 


Salt a tongue with saltpetre and common salt for a 
week, turning it every day. Boil it tender enough to 
peel: when done, stew it in a moderately strong gravy; 
season with soy, mushroom catsup, Cayenne, pounded 
cloves, and salt, if necessary. 

Serve with truffles, morels, and mushrooms. In both 
this receipt and the next, the roots must be taken off" 
before salting, but some fat left. 


Season with common salt and saltpetre, brown sugar, 
a little bay-salt, pepper, cloves, mace and alspice, in fine 
powder for a fortnight; then take away the pickle, put 
the tongue into a small pan, and lay some butter on it; 
cover it with brown crust, and bake slowly till so tender 
that a straw would go through it. 

The thin part of tongues, when hung up to dry, 
grates like hung beef, and also makes a fine addition to 
the flavor of omelets. 


Wash it carefully; stuff as a hare; and serve with 
rich gravy, and currant-jelly sauce. Hash with the 
same, and port wine. 



Soak and cleanse a fine cheek the day before it is to 
be eaten ; put it into a stew-pot that will cover close, 
with three quarts of water; simmer it after it has first 
boiled up and been well skimmed. In two hours put 
plenty of carrots, leeks, two or three turnips, a bunch 
of sweet herbs, some whole pepper, and four ounces of 
alspice. Skim it often; when the meat is tender take 
it out: let the soup get cold, take off the cake of fat, 
and serve the soup separate or with meat. 

It should be a fine brown; which might be done by 
burnt sugar; or by frying some onions quite brown with 
flour, and simmering them with it. This last way im- 
proves the flavor of all soups and gravies of the brown 

If vegetables are not approved of in the soup, they 
may be taken out, and a small roll toasted, or bread 
fried and added. Celery is a great addition, and 
should always be served. Where it is not to be got, 
the seed of it gives quite as good a flavor, boiled in, and 
strained off. 


Soak half a head three hours, and clean it with 
plenty of water. Take the meat off the bones; and 
put it in a pan with a large onion, a bunch of sweet 
herbs, some bruised alspice, pepper and salt. 

Lay the bones on the top*: pour on two or three 
quarts of water, and cover the pan close with brown 
paper, or a dish that will fit close. Let it stand eight 
or ten hours in a slow oven ; or simmer it by the side 
of the fire, or on a hot hearth. When done tender, 
put the meat into a clean pan and let it get cold. — 
Take the cake of fat off, and warm the head in pieces 
in the soup. Put what vegetables you choose. 


Cover the top with floured cloth; boil them and 
serve with dry toast. 



May be served in a tureen, stewed with milk and 
onion till tender. Melted butter for sauce. 

Or fry it in small bits dipped in batter. 

Or stew the thin part, cut into bits, in gravy; thick- 
en with flour and butter, and add a little catsup. 

Or fricassee it with white sauce. 


Boil the tripe, but not quite tender; then put it into 
salt and water, which must be changed every day till it 
is all used. When you dress the tripe, dip it into 
batter of flour and eggs, and fry it of a good brown. 


The sides of a hog are made into bacon, and the in- 
side is cut out with very little meat to the bone. On 
each side there is a large spare-rib; which is usually 
divided into two, one sweet-bone, and a blade-bone. 
The bacon is the whole outside: and contains a fore- 
leg and a ham; which last is the hind-leg, but if left 
with the bacon, it is called a gammon. 


Choose a small leg of fine young pork: cut a slit in 
the knuckle with a sharp knife; and fill the space with 
sage and onion chopped, and a little pepper and salt. 
When half-done, score the skin in slices, but do not cut 
deeper than the outer rind. 

Apple sauce and potatoes should be served to eat 
with it. 


Salt it eight or ten days: when it is to be dressed, 
weigh it; let it lie half an hour in cold water, to make 
it white: allow a quarter of an hour for every pound, 
and half an hour over for the time it boils up; skim it 
as soon as it boils, and frequently after. Allow water 
enough. Save some of it to make pea-soup. Some 


boil it in a very nice cloth, floured ; which gives a verj 
delicate look. It should be small and of a fine grain. 
Serve pease-pudding and turnips with it. 


Roast them. Cut the skin of the loin across, at 
distances of half an inch, with a sharp knife. 


Put them into pickle, or salt the shoulder as a leg: 
vyrhen very nice, they may be roasted. 


Should be basted with butter and a little flour, and 
then sprinkled with dried sage crumbled. Apple sauce 
and potatoes should be served up with roasted pork. 


Is taken from the bacon-hog; the less meat left on it, 
in moderation, the better. It is to be broiled; and 
when just done, pepper and salt it. Put to it a piece 
of butter and a tea-spoonful of mustard; and serve it 
covered, quickly. 


Cut them from a loin or neck, and of middling 
thickness: pepper and broil them, turning them often; 
when nearly done, put on salt, rub a bit of butter over, 
and serve the moment they are taken off the fire, a few 
at a time. 


Chop fat and lean pork together; season it with sage, 
pepper, and salt, and you may add two or three berries 
of alspice ; half fill hog's intestines that have been 
soaked and made clean: or the meat may be kept in a 
very small pan closely covered: and so rolled and dusted 
with very little flour before it is fried. They must be 
pricked with a fork before they are dressed, or they 
will burst. 



Season lean and fat pork with some salt, saltpetre, 
black pepper, and alspice, all in fine powder, and rub 
into the meat; the sixth day cut it small, and mix with 
it some shred shallot or garlic, as fine as possible. — 
Have ready an ox-intestine that has been scoured, 
salted, and soaked well, and fill it with the above stuff 
ing; tie up the ends, and hang it to smoke as you would 
hams, but first wrap it in a fold or or two of old muslin. 
It must be high-dried. Some eat it without boiling, 
but others like it boiled first. The skin should be tied 
in different places, so as to make each link about eight 
or nine inches long. 


If you can get it when just killed, this is of great ad- 
vantage. Let it be scalded, which the dealers usually 
do; then put some sage, crumbs of bread, salt, and 
pepper, into the belly, and sew it up. Observe to 
skewer the legs back, or the under part will not crisp. 

Lay it to a brisk fire till thoroughly dry; then have 
ready some butter in a dry cloth, and rub the pig with 
it in every part. Dredge as much flour over as will 
possibly lie, and do not touch it again till ready to serve; 
then scrape off the flour very carefully with a blunt 
knife, rub it well with the buttered cloth. When done, 
take it up; and without withdrawing the spit, cut it 
down the back and belly, lay it into the dish, and chop 
the sage and bread quickly, as fine as you can, and mix 
them with a large quantity of fine melted butter that 
has very little flour. Put the sauce into the dish after 
the pig has been split down the back, and garnished 
with the ears and the two jaws; take off the upper part 
of the head down to the snout. 


Split the head, tfike out the brains, cut off the ears, 
and sprinkle it with common salt for a day; then drain 
it: salt it well with common salt and saltpetre three 
days, then lay the salt and head into a small quantity of 


water for two days. Wash it, and boil it till all the 
bones will come out; remove them, and chop the head 
as quick as possible: but first skin the tongue, and take 
the skin carefully off the head, to put under and over. 
Season with pepper, salt, and a little mace or alspice 
berries. Put the skin into a small pan, press the cut 
head in, and put the other skin over; press it down. 
If too fat, you may put a few bits of lean pork to be 
prepared the same way. Add salt and vinegar, and 
boil these with some of the liquor for a pickle to 
keep it. 


Clean and boil them in a very small quantity of wa- 
ter, till every bone can be taken out; throw in half a 
handful of chopped sage, the same of parsley, and a 
seasoning of pepper, salt, and mace in fine powder; — 
simmer till the herbs are scalded, then pour the whole 
off to cool. 



Take away the pipe that runs along the bone of the 
inside of a chine of mutton; and if to be kept a great 
time, rub the part close round the tail with salt, after 
first cutting out the kernel. 

Every kernel should be taken out of all sorts of 
meats as soon as brought in: then wipe dry. 

For roasting, it should hang as long as it will keep, 
the hind quarter especially, but not so long as to taint; 
for whatever fashion may authorize, putrid juices ought 
not to be taken into the stomach. 


This is particularly useful, as so many dishes may be 
made of it; but it is not advantageous for the family. 
The bones should be cut short, which the butchers will 
not do unless particularly desired. 

The best end of the neck may be boiled, and served 
with turnips, or roasted, or dressed in steaks, and in pies. 


The scrag may be stewed in broth; or with a small 
quantity of water, some small onions, a few pepper- 
corns, and a little rice, and served together. ^V^hen a 
neck is to be boiled to look particularly nice, saw down 
the chine-bone, strip the rib halfway down, and chop 
off the ends of the bones about four inches. The skin 
should not be taken off till boiled. 


Keep it as long as it can be preserved sweet by the 
different modes; let it be washed with warm milk and 
water, or vinegar, if necessary; but when to be dressed, 
observe to wash it well lest the outside should have a 
bad flavour from keeping. Put a paste of coarse flour 
or strong paper, and fold the hauch in; set it a great 
distance from the fire, and allow a proportionable time 
for the paste; do not take it off till about thirty -five or 
forty minutes before serving, and then baste it continu- 
ally. Bring the haunch nearer to the fire before you 
take off the paste, and froth it up as you would venison. 

A gravy must be made of a pound and a half of loin 
of old mutton, simmered in a pint of water to half, and 
no seasoning but salt; brown it with a little burnt sugar, 
and send it up in the dish; but there should be a good 
deal of gravy in the meat, for though long at the fire, 
the distance and covering will prevent its roasting out. 
Serve with currant-jelly sauce. 


Let it be well kept first. Raise the skin and then 
skewer it on again; take it off a quarter of an hour 
before serving, sprinkle it with some salt, baste it, and 
dredge it well with flour. The rump should be split, 
and skewered back on each side. The joint may be 
large or small according to the company; it is the most 
elegant if the latter. Being broad, it requires a high 
and strong fire. 




Cut off the superfluous fat, and roast and serve the 
meat with stewed cucumbers; or to eat cold, covered 
with chopped parsley. Or half broil, and then grill it 
before the fire; in which case cover it with crumbs and 
herbs, and serve with caper-sauce. — Or if boned, take 
off a good deal of fat, and cover it with bread, herbs, 
and seasoning, then roll, boil, and serve with capers and 


Hang the mutton till tender; bone it; and lay a 
seasoning of pepper, alspice, nutmeg, and a few cloves, 
all in fine powder, over it. Next day prepare a stuffing 
as for hare; beat the meat, and cover it with the stuf 
fing; roll it up tight, and tie it. Half-bake it in a slow 
oven; let it grow cold; take off the fat, and put the 
gravy into a stew pan; flour the meat, and put it in 
likewise, stew it till almost ready, and add a glass of 
port wine, some catsup, an anchovy, and a little lemon 
pickle, half an hour before serving; serve it in the 
gravy, and with jelly sauce. A few mushrooms are a 
great improvement; but if to eat like hare, do not use 
these, nor the lemon pickle. 


Take a loin of mutton that has been well hung; and 
cut from the part next the leg, some collops very thin. 
Take out the sinews. Season the collops with salt, 
pepper, and mace; and strew over them shred parsley, 
thyme, and two or three shallots; fry them in butter till 
half done; add half a pint of gravy, a little juice of 
lemon, and a piece of butter rubbed in flour; and 
simmer the whole very gently five minutes. They 
should be served immediately, or they will be hard. 


These should be cut from a loin or neck; if a neck, 
the bones should not be long. They should be broiled 
on a clear fire, seasoned when half done, and often 


turned ; take them up into a very hot dish, rub a bit of 
butter on each, and serve hot the moment they are 


Take a pound of the rawest part of a leg of mutton 
that has been either roasted or boiled; chop it extreme- 
ly small, and season it with pepper, salt, and nutmeg; 
add to it six ounces of beef suet, some sweet herbs, two 
anchovies, and a pint of oysters; all chopped very 
small; a quarter of a pound of grated bread, some of 
the anchovy liquor, and the yolks and whites of two 
eggs well beaten. Put it all, when well mixed, into a 
little pot, and use it by rolling it into balls of a sausage- 
shape and frying. 


Stew pease, lettuce, and onions, in a very little water^ 
with a beef or ham bone. While these are doing, fry 
some mutton or lamb steaks seasoned, of a nice brown; 
three quarters of an hour before dinner, put the steaks 
into a stew-pan, and the vegetables over them; stew 
them, and serve altogether. 



This should be boiled in a cloth to look as white as 
possible. The loin should be fried in steaks and served 
round, garnished with dried or fried parsley, spinach to 
eat with it; or dressed separately or roasted. 


Roast it either whole or in separate parts. If left 
to be cold, chopped parsley should be sprinkled over it. 
The neck and breast together are called a scoven. 


Cut off the chin-bone from the breast, and set it on 
to stew with a pint of gravy. When the bones would 


draw out, put it on the gridiron to grill; and then lay 
it in a dish of cucumbers nicely stewed. 


Fry them to a beautiful brown color; when served 
throw over them a good quantity of crumbs of bread 
fried, and crimped parsley. 

Mutton or lamb-steaks seasoned or broiled in butter- 
ed papers, either with crumbs and herbs, or without, 
are a genteel dish, and are palatable. 


Take the best end of the neck of lamb, cut it into 
steaks, and chop each bone so short as to make the steaks 
almost round. Egg, and stew with crumbs, herbs, and 
seasoning; fry them of the finest brown, mash some 
potatoes with a little butter and cream, and put them 
into the middle of the dish raised high. Then place 
the edge of one steak on another with the small bone 
upwards, all round the potatoes. 



The first part that turns bad of a leg of veal, is 
Avhere the udder is skcAvered back. The skewer should 
be taken out, and both that and the meat under it 
wiped very dry, by which means it will keep good 
three or four days in hot weather. 


Let the fillet be cut large or small, as best suits the 
number of your company. Take out the bone, fill the 
space with fine stuffing, and let it be skewered quite 
round; and send the large side uppermost. When 
half roasted, if not before, put a paper over the fat; 
and take care to allow a sufficient time, and put it a 
good distance from the fire, as the meat is very solid; 
serve with melted butter poured over it. 



As few people are fond of boiled veal, it may be well 
to leave the knuckle small, and take oflf some cutlets 
or collops before it be dressed; and as the knuckle will 
keep longer than the fillet, it is best not to cut off the 
slices till wanted. Break the bone to make it take 
less room; wash it well; and put it in a saucepan with 
three onions, a blade or two of mace, and a few pepper- 
corns; cover it with water, and simmer it till quite 
ready. In the meau time some macaroni should be 
boiled with it if approved, or rice, or a little rice flour, 
to give it a small degree of thickness. Before it is 
served, add half a pint of milk and cream, and let it 
come up either with or without the meat. 

Or fry the knuckle with sliced onions and butter to a 
good brown; and have ready pease, lettuce, onion, and a 
cucumber or two, stewed in a small quantity of water, 
an hour; then add these to the veal; and stew it till the 
meat is tender enough to eat, but not overdone. Throw 
in pepper, salt, and a bit of shred mint, and serve 


Cut off the knuckle, for a stew or gravy. Roast the 
other part for stuffing; you may lard it. Serve with 
melted butter. 

The blade-bone, with a good deal of meat left on, 
eats extremely well with mushroom or oyster-sauce, or 
mushroom-catsup in butter. 


Cut off the scrag to boil, and cover it with onion 
tauce. It should be boiled in milk and water. Parsley 
and butter may be served with it, instead of onion-sauce. 

Or it may be stewed with whole rice, small onions, 
and pepper-corns, with a very little water. 

Or boiled, eaten with bacon and greens. 

The breast end may be either roasted, broiled as 
•teaks, or made into pies. 




Lard the breast end with bacon rolled in parsley 
• hopped fine, salt, pepper, and nutmeg: put it into a 
losser, and cover it with water. Put to it the scrag- 
end, a little lean bacon or ham, an onion, two carrots, 
two heads of celery, and about a glass of Madeira wine. 
Stew it quick two hours, or till it is tender, but not too 
much. Strain off the liquor: mix a little flour and 
butter in a stew-pan till brown, and lay the veal in this, 
the upper side to the bottom of the pan. Let it be 
over the fire till it gets colored; then lay it into the 
dish, stir some of the liquor in and boil it up, skim it 
nicely, and squeeze orange or lemon-juice into it. 


Before roasted, if large, the two ends may be taken 
off and fried, or the whole may be roasted. Butter 
should be poured over it. 

If any be left, cut the pieces into handsome sizes, put 
them into a stew-pan, and pour some broth on it; or if 
you have no broth, a little water will do: add a bunch 
of herbs, a blade or two of mace, some pepper and an 
anchovy; stew till the meat is tender, thicken with 
butter and flour; and a little catsup. 

Serve the sweet bread whole upon it, which may 
either be stewed, or parboiled, and then covered with 
crumbs, herbs, pepper, and salt, and browned in a 
Dutch oven. 


Pound some cold veal or white of chicken seasoned 
as directed in the last article, and put layers of it with 
layers of ham pounded or rather shred; press each 
down, and cover with butter. 


Cut long thin coUops; beat them well, and lay on 
them a bit of thin bacon of the same size, and spread 
forcemeat on llmt, seasoned high, and also a little Cay- 
enne. Roll 1 h(^m up tight, about the size of two fingers, 


but no more than two or three inches long; put a very 
small skewer to fasten each firmly; rub egg ov^er them: 
fry to a fine brown, and pour a rich brown gravy over. 


Boil six or eight eggs hard; cut the yolks in two, and 
lay some of the pieces in the bottom of the pot: shake 
in a little chopped parsley, some slices of veal and ham, 
then add eggs again; shaking in after each some chop- 
ped parsley, with pepper and salt, till the pot is fiill. 
Then put in water enough to cover it, and lay on it 
about an ounce of butter; tie it over with a double pa- 
per, and bake it about an hour. Then press it close 
together with a spoon, and let it stand till cold. 

It may be put into a small mould ; and then it will 
turn out beautifully for a supper or side dish. 


Clean it very nicely, and soak it in water till white; 
take out the tongue to salt, and the brains to make a 
little dish. Boil the head extremely tender; then 
strew it over with crumbs and chopped parsley, and 
brown them; or if liked better, leave one side plain. 
Bacon and greens are to be served with it. 

The brains must be boiled; and then mixed with 
melted butter, scalded sage chopped, pepper, and salt. 

If any of the head is left, it may be hashed next day, 
and a few slices of bacon just warmed and put round. 
Cold calf's head eats well if grilled. 

Clean and half boil a head ; cut the meat into small 
bits, and put it into a tosser, with a little gravy made 
of the bones, some of the water it was boiled in, a bunch 
of sweet herbs, an onion, and a blade of mace. Season 
the gravy with a little pepper, nutmeg, and salt, rub 
down some flour and butter, and give all a boil together; 
then take out the herbs and onion, and add a little cup 
of cream, but do not boil it in. Serve with small bite 
of bacon rolled round, and balls. 



Squeeze the juice of a lemon into the tureen, and 
pour the soup upon it. 

Prepare half a calfs head without the skin: when the 
meat is cut off, break the bones, and put them into a 
gauce-pan with some gravy made of beef and veal bones, 
and seasoned with fried onions, herbs, mace, and pepper. 
Have ready two or three ox-palates boiled so tender as 
to blanch, and cut into small pieces; to which a cow 
heel, likewise cut into pieces, is a great improvement. 
Brown some butter, flour, and onion, and pour the gravy 
to it; then add the meats as above, and stew. Half a 
pint of sherry, an anchovy, two spoonfuls of walnut 
catsup, the same of mushroom catsup, and some chop- 
ped herbs. 



When there is any fear of gravy-meat being spoiled 
before it be wanted, season well, and fry it lightly, 
which will preserve it two days longer; but the gravy 
is best when the juices are fresh. 

When soups or gravies are to be put by, let them be 
changed every day into fresh scalded pans. Whatever 
has vegetables boiled in it, is apt to turn sour sooner 
than the juices of meat. Never keep any gravy, &c. 
in metal. 

When fat remains on any soup, a tea-cupful of flour 
and water mixed quite smooth, and boiled in, will 
take it off. 

If richness or greater consistency be wanted, a good 
lump of butter mixed with flour, and boiled in the soup, 
will give either of these qualities. 

Long boiling is necessary to give the full flavor of 
the ingredients, therefore time should be allowed for 
soups and gravies; and they are best if made the day 
before they are wanted. 

Soups and gravies are far better when the meat is 
put at the bottom of the pan, and stewed, and the herbs, 
roots, &c. with butter, than when water is put to the 


meat at first; and the gravy that is drawn from the meat 
should be almost dried up before the water is put to it. 
Do not use the sediment of gravies, &c. that have 
stood to be cold. When onions are strong, boil a turnip 
with them, if for sauce: this will make them mild. 

If soups or gravies are too weak, do not cover them 
up in boiling, that the watery particles may evaporate. 

A clear jelly of cow-heels is very useful to keep in 
the house, being a great improvement to soups and 


Stew a small knuckle in about three quarts of water, 
two ounces of rice, a little salt, and a iDlade of mace, 
till the liquor is half wasted away. 


Two or three pints of soup may be made of a small 
knuckle of veal, with the proper seasoning; and both 
served together, with the addition of a quarter of a pint 
of good milk. Two spoonfuls of cream, and a little 
ground rice, will give it a proper thickness. 


Save the water of boiling pork or beef; and if too 
salt, put as much fresh water to it; or use fresh water 
entirely, with roast beef bones, a ham or gammon-bone, 
or an anchovy or two. Simmer these with some good 
whole or split pease; the smaller the quantity of water 
at first, the better. Simmer till the pease will pulp 
through a colander: then set the pulp, and more of the 
liquoi- that boiled the pease, with twQ carrots, a turnip, 
a leek, and a stick of celery cut into bits, to stew till all 
is quite tender. The last requires less time; an hour 
will do for it. 

When ready, put fried bread cut into dice, dried 
mint rubbed fine, pepper, and (if wanted) salt, into the 



Wash and soak a leg of beef; crack the bone, and 
set it on the fire with a gallon of water, a large bunch 
of sweet herbs, two large onions sliced and fried a fine 
brown, (but not burnt,) two blades of mace, three 
cloves, twenty berries of alspice, and forty black pep- 
pers. Stew till the soup is as rich as you choose; then 
take out the meat. Next day take off the cake of fat; 
which will serve for basting, or for common pie-crust. 
Have ready such vegetables as you choose to serve. Cut 
carrots, turnips, and celery, small, and simmer till tender. 


Two or three rumps of beef will make it stronger 
than a much larger quantity of meat without these, 
and form a very nourishing soup. Make it like gravjr 
coup, and give it what flavor or thickness you like. 



The outside of a hoiled pudding often tastes disa- 
greeably; which arises from the cloth not being nicely 
washed, and kept in a dry place. It should be dipped 
in boiling water, squeezed dry, and floured when to be 

If bread, it should be tied loose; if batter, tight over. 

The water should boil quick when the pudding is put 
in; and it should be moved about for a minute, lest the 
ingredients should not mix. 

Batter pudding should be strained through a coarse 
«eive, when all is mixed. In others, the eggs separately. 

The pans and basins must be always buttered. 

A pan of cold w^atcr should be ready, and the pud- 
ding dipped in as soon as it comes out of the pot, and 
then it will not adhere to the cloth. 

Very good pudding may be made without eggs, but 
they must have as little milk as will mix, and must boil 
three or four hours. A few spoonfuls of fresh small 
beer, or one of yeast will answer instead of eggs. 



Beat half a pound of sweet and a few bitter almonds 
with a spoonful of water; then mix four ounces of but- 
ter, four eggs, two spoonfuls of cream warm with 
butter, one of brandy, a little nutmeg, and sugar to 
taste. Butter some cups, half fill, and bake the pud- 
ding. Serve with butter, wine, and sugar. 


Beat fine four ounces of almonds, four or five bitter 
ditto, with a little wine, yolks of six eggs, peel of two 
lemons grated, six ounces of butter, near a quart of 
cream, and juice of one lemon. When well mixed, 
bake it half an hour, with paste round the dish. 


Slice bread, spread with butter, and lay it in a dish 
with currants between each layer; and sliced citron, 
orange, or lemon; if to be very nice. Pour over an 
unboiled custard of milk, and two or three eggs, two 
hours at least, before it is to be baked. 


Grate the rind of an orange; put to it six ounces of 
fresh butter, six or eight ounces of lump-sugar pounded: 
beat them all in a mortar, and add as you do it, the 
whole of eight eggs well beaten and strained; scrape a 
raw apple, and mix with the rest; put a paste at the 
bottom and sides of the dish, and over the orange mix- 
ture put cross bars of paste. It will bake in half an 


Beat the yolks of four eggs; add four ounces of white 
sugar, the rind of a lemon being rubbed with some 
lumps of it to take the essence: then peel, and beat it 
in a mortar with the juice of a large lemon, and mix all 
with four or five ounces of butter warmed. Put a crust 
into a shallow dish, nick the edges, and put the above 
into it. When served turn the pudding out of the dish. 



Pare and quarter four large apples; boil them tender 
with the rind of a lemon, in so little water that, when 
done, none may remain; heat them quite fine in a mor- 
tar; add the crumb of a smoll roll, four ounces of butter, 
melted; the yolks of five and whites of three eggs, 
juice of half a lemon, and sugar to taste: beat all to- 
gether, and lay it in a dish with paste. 


Soak four ounces of rice in warm water half an hour; 
drain the latter from it, and throw it into a stew-pan, 
with half a pint of milk, half a stick of cinnamon, and 
sinmier till tender. When cold, add four eggs well 
beaten, two ounces of butter melted in a tea-cupful of 
cream; and put into it three ounces of sugar, a quarter 
of a nutmeg, and a good piece of lemon-peel. 

Put a light puff paste into the dish, and bake in a 
quick oven. 


Steep the crumbs of bread, in about a pint of warm 
milk; when soaked, beat six eggs, whites and yolks, and 
mix with the bread, two ounces of butter warmed, sugar, 
orange-flower water, a spoonful of brandy, a little nut- 
meg, and a tea-cupful of cream. Beat all well, and 
bake in a tea-cup buttered. If currants are chosen, a 
quarter of a pound is sufficient; if not, they are good 
without, or you may put in orange or lemon-candy. 
Serve with pudding-sauce. 


Rub three spoonfuls of fine flour extremely smooth 
by degrees into a pint of milk: simmer till it thickens, 
stir in two ounces of butter, set it to cool; then add the 
yolks of three eggs; flour a cloth that has been wet, or 
butter a basin, and put the batter into it; tie it tight, 
and plunge it into boiling water, the bottom upwards. 
Boil it an hour and a half, and serve with plain butter. 


If approved, a little ginger, nutmeg, and lemon-peel, 
may be added. Serve with sweet sauce. 


Boil half a pound of rice in water, with a little bit of 
salt, till quite tender, drain it dry; mix it with the 
yolks and whites of four eggs, a quarter of a pint of 
cream, with two ounces of fresh butter melted in the 
latter, four ounces of beef-suet or marrow, or veal-suet 
taken from a fillet of veal, finely shred, three quarters 
of a pound of currants, two spoonfuls of brand}', one of 
peach-water, nutmeg, and grated lemon-peel. When 
well mixed, put a paste round the edge and fill the dish. 
Slices of candied orange, lemon, and citron if approved, 
may be put in. Bake in a moderate oven. 


Swell rice as above; then add some more milk, an 
egg, sugar, alspice, and lemon peel. Bake in a deep 


Take eight ounces of boiled potatoes, two ounces of 
butter, the yolks and white of two eggs, a quarter of 
a pint of cream, one spoonful of white wine, a little 
salt, the juice and rind of a lemon; beat all to froth; 
and sugar to taste. 


Prepare some fine steaks; roll them in fat. Lay a 
paste of suet in a basin, and put in the rollers of steaks: 
cover the basin with a paste, and pinch the edges to 
keep the gravy in. Cover with a cloth tied close: and 
let the pudding boil slowly, but for a length of time. 


Mix by degrees a pint of good milk with a large 
spoonful of flour, the yolks of five eggs, some orange- 
flower water, and a little pounded cinnamon. Butter a 
basin that will exactly hold it, pour the batter in, and 



tie a floured cloth over. Put in boiling water over the 
fire, and turn it about a few minutes to prevent the egg 
going to one side. Half an hour will be sufficient to 
boil it. 

Put currant jelly on it, and serve with sweet-sauce. 


Take flour and suet half a pound of each, four eggs, 
a quarter of a pint of new milk, a little mace and nut- 
meg, a quarter of a pound of raisins, ditto of currants: 
mix well, and boil three quarters of an hour. 


Beat six fresh eggs, well; mix, when strained, with 
a pint of cream, four ounces of sugar, a glass of wine, 
half a nutmeg grated, and as much flour as will make 
it almost as thick as ordinary pancake-batter. Heat 
the frying-pan tolerably hot, wipe it with a clean cloth, 
then pour in the batter to make thin pancakes. 


Boil half a pound of rice to a jelly, in a small quantity 
of water; whtn cold, mix it with a pint of cream, eight 
eggs, a bit of salt, and nutmeg; stir in eight ounces of 
butter just warmed, and add as much flour as will make 
the batter thick enough. Fry in as little lard or 
dripping as possible. 


Make them of any of the batters directed for pan- 
cakes, by dropping a small quantity into the pan; or 
make the plainer sort, and put pared apple, sliced and 
cored, into the batter, and fry some of it with each slice. 
Currants or sliced lemons as thin as paper, make an 
agreeable change. 


Boil two large potatoes, scrape them fine; beat four 
yolks and three whites of eggs, and add to the above one 
large spoonful of cream, another of sweet wine, a 


squeeze of lemon, and a little nutmeg. Beat this bat- 
ter half an hour at least. It will be extremely light. 

Put a good quantity of fine lard in a stew-pan, and 
drop a spoonful of the batter at a time into it. Fry 
them; and serve as a sauce, a glass of white wine, the 
juice of a lemon, one dessert-spoonful of peach-leaf or 
almond-water, and some white sugar, warmed together. 



Puffs may be made of any sort of fruit, but it should 
be prepared first with sugar. 

Weigh an equal quantity of butter with as much fine 
flour as you judge necessary; mix a little of the former 
with the latter, and wet it with as little water as will 
make it into a stiff paste. Roll it out, and put all the 
butter over it in slices, turn in the ends, and roll it thin: 
do this twice, and touch it no more than can be avoided. 


Boil six eggs hard, shred them small; shred double 
the quantity of suet; then put currants washed and 
pickled, one pound, or more if the eggs were large; the 
peel of one lemon shred very fine, and the juice, six 
spoonfuls of sweet wine, mace, nutmeg, and sugar, a 
very little salt; orange, lemon, and citron, candied. 
Make a light paste for them. 


Give prunes a scald, take out the stones, and break 
them; put the kernels into a little cranberry-juice, with 
the prunes and sugar, simmer: and when cold, make fi 
tart of the sweetmeat. 


Mix two spoonfuls of flour, a little grated lemon-peel, 
some nutmeg, half a spoonful of brandy, a little loaf 
«ugar, and one egg; then fry it enough, but not brown; 
beat it in a mortar with five eggs, whites and yolks; 


put a quantity of lard in a frying-pan, and when quito 
hot, drop a dessert-spoonful of butter at a time: turn 
them as they brown. Serve them immediately with 
sweet sauce. 


To a quart of rich cream put a quart of white wine, 
the juice of two lemons, with the rind of one grated, 
and sweeten it. Whip it up well and take off the froth 
as it rises. Put it upon a hair sieve, and let it stand in 
a cool place till the next day. Then half fill the 
glasses with the scum, and heap up the froth as high as 
possible. The bottom will look clear and it will keep 
several davs. 


Take the juice of red currants, 1 lb. sugar. Boil 
them down. 

Another methocL- — Take the juice of red currants, add 
white sugar, equal quantities. 

Stir it gently and smoothly for three hours, put it into 
glasses, and in three days it will concrete into a firm 



Suppose a farmer to resolve that he would keep no 
cow that did not hold out a good milker six months in 
the year — and that did not give sixteen quarts of milk 
per day for two months after calving, and twelve quarts 
per day the next three months, and two quarts per 
day the month following. — Such a cow would yield per 
annum 2100 quarts of milk. 

Is it not practicable to have throughout the country, 
a common dairy stock of animals as good as the last 

The question is submitted to farmers for consideration. 
The probability is that in taking some pains to get stock 
as good, they would get even better. 


If the various modes of obtaining this object were 
resorted to at once, and with zeal, throughout the 
country, there would be a prodigious improvement in a 
very short time. No young animal of promising ap- 
pearance would go to the butcher. More care would 
be taken of young stock. More young stock would be 
retained to insure a better selection of milch cows. — 
Farmers would think more of the advantages of em- 
ploying bulls of the improved breeds. Heifers should 
be milked with great care, and very thoroughly, to get 
them in the habit of holding out as long milkers. If 
they once dry early, no care and keeping afterwards 
will correct this fault. Heifers with the first calf 
should be fed well with some additional care the last 
three months they are in milk, to make them hold out. 

The profit of a milch cow is not generally under- 
stood. Milk is not only the most nutritious but the 
cheapest article of food. The food necessary for a cow 
in full milk, does not exceed in price, one third of what 
is necessary in feeding for the Imtcher. 


Tlie component parts of milk are oil, curd and whey. 
The oily parts constitute tlie cream, and the curd makes 
the cheese. The oily parts being specifically lighter 
than the other parts of the substance, ascends to the 
surface in the form of cream. 

In winter, four or five days, according to the common 
practice, are necessary to produce all the cream of a 
pan of milk. Such cream from this tedious process not 
unfrequently acquires a bitter taste, which is communi- 
cated to the butter. And the churning of butter from 
such cream is moreover an operation of four or five 
hours, and sometimes longer, unless hot water be poured 
into the cream, which invariably injures the butter bj 
rendering it white and insipid. 

To shorten the time and to diminish the labor of ma- 
king butter, and at the same time to improve its quality, 
there has been recently established in the Dairy House 



of IMr. R. Smith's Farm, called Orange, an aparatus 
upon the simplest principles imaginable. During the 
coldest weather in winter, in the course of less than 
twenty-four hours after the milk has been taken from 
the cows, sweet cream is produced, greater in quantity 
and richer in quality, than can be obtained in the ordi- 
nary management in tive days. So rich, indeed, is the 
cream, that it is churned with as much facility as is the 
rich cream of the Alderney cows, in the summer sea- 
son. The operation of churning never exceeds twen- 
ty-five minutes. The butter from such cream has never 
failed to be of a fine flavor and of fine color; and in 
the nature of things it never can fail to be so, unless 
the dairy woman should be utterly ignorant of the art 
of making sweet butter. The process is not a new in- 
vention. According to the principles of the system 
pursued at Orange, is made the sweet butter which, in 
England, is the most admired. The part of the course 
of proceeding, not in common use, is this: The pans, 
with the milk just taken from the cows, remain until a 
thin skim of cream is produced. They are then placed 
in hot water, and in about 30 minutes thereafter, all 
the cream, contained in the milk, is found on the sur- 
face. The cream thus obtained is managed as other 
rich cream is in all well conducted dairies. 

The skimmed milk, consisting of curd and whey, 
without any of the buttery parts, has a peculiar sweet- 
ness, is extremely pleasant to the taste, and is deemed 
a very wholesome beverage. 


In the Bulletin of the Societe d'Encouragement, for 
the month of September, 1829, is an article on the 
fabrication of cheese from potatoes, of which the fol- 
lowing is an extract, from the correspondence of M. 

There is made, in Tliuringe and in a part of Saxony, 
cheese from potatoes, which is very much esteemed; 
this is the mode of preparing it. 


After having selected the best kind of potatoes, thej 
are boiled; when cooled, they are pealed and reduced 
to a pulp, either by a grater, or in a mortar: to five 
pounds of the pulp, which should be equally fine and 
homogeneous, is added a pound of sour milk with a 
sufficient quantity of salt; the whole is well kneaded, 
then covered up and left to repose for three or four days, 
according to the season of the j'ear: at the end of that 
time, the mixture is again kneaded, and then put into 
8mall baskets, to divest it of the superfluous humidity. 
Afterward it is placed in the shade to dry and then it is 
packed in layers in large jars, or casks, where it is left 
tor fifteen days. The older this chee=e grows, the 
better it is. 

There are three kinds made: the first, which is the 
most common, is prepared in the proportions above 
named; the second, with four parts of potatoes and two 
of curd; the third with two pounds of potatoes and four 
pounds of milk. 

The potato cheese has this advantage over common 
cheese, it never engenders maggots, and it keeps per- 
fectly well for several years, provided it is placed in a 
dry situation and in close vessels. 

I have repeated this experiment with the proportions 
of the second quality. This was the method pursued. 
The potatoes were boiled, pealed, and crushed with the 
hands. If the fabrication was carried on extensively, 
the machine used for reducing the potatoes in distille- 
ries, could be used. The milk was heated, and curdled 
with vinegar, as no runnet was at command. After 
this operation, the milk was mixed with the potatoes; 
the mass was salted, then it was passed through a hair 
sieve, to pulverise it thoroughly and make the mixture 
perfect; this mass, covered with salt, was left for ten or 
twelve days in an earthen pan; at this period it was 
distributed, for want of baskets, on sieves, where it 
drained and became moulded into regular forms. The 
sieves were lined with a linen cloth before the mixture 
was put into them. Fifteen days after this draining 
operation, which had been aided a little by pressure, 
the cheeses were placed, enveloped in their cloths, be- 


tween osier hurdles and put into the cellar. At this 
time the gaseous fermentation is well developed, the 
cheeses are yet very soft, and there is formed on the 
surface a skin of mould. The cheese taste is very 
sensible, and not disagreeable, and I think this kind of 
cheese can be advantageously made by the farmers. 


Butter forms an important item in the produce of the 
farm, as well as the necessaries for the table. It is of 
the utmost importance to the farmer who resides near a 
large town, to establish his reputation for bringing to 
market fine butter. This is not only profitable of it- 
self, but gives a comparative recommendation to every 
thing he has to dispose of. IIow often do we hear the 
expression in families, "that they bought such an ar- 
ticle of Mr. C. who makes the best butter that is brought 
into our market.'' When a man has established his 
reputation for an article, he not only finds a readier 
sale for it, but gets a greater price. This is particular- 
ly the case v*^ith butter. Who among us does not 
prefer paying two or three cents a pound for a fine, 
fresh, well flavored article, over the rank, marbled, 
greasy-looking stuff which is seen daily in our markets? 
Now the milk for the one was as good as for the other 
— the only difference being in the manner of making. 
Having been acquainted with the course pursued 
by some eminent dairymen and women who preserve 
their butter through the season fine and fresh, we give 
the following directions: — 

1st. Let your dairy-room be kept cool, and not only 
the room, but every utensil used in it, be kept from any 
rancid, sour, or unpleasant smell. 

2d. Let the milk with the cream be put in the churn 
as soon as sour, before any putrid fermentation takes 

Butter is found to be of better flavor when churned 
with the milk, than when the cream is churned sepa- 
rately. Let the churning be continued until the butter 
i» well collected, after which it should be taken out 


with a ladle and set in a cool place to harden; it should 
then be worked over with the ladle until perfectlj 
freed from the butter-milk. In no part of the process 
should the butter be touched with the hands, but be 
handled entirely with the ladle and paddles. In hot 
wxather it is sometimes worked with paddles in clear 
cold water, which assists in extracting the buttermilk. 
After the butter has been worked a sufficient time to 
give it, as the dealers say, a "good grain," salt it mode- 
rately. If to each pint of salt one ounce of fine sugar 
is added, it improves the fiavor. If the butter is de- 
signed to be taken soon to market, let it be worked in 
small cakes of one pound each, handsomely marked or 
stamped, and put by in a cool place, and taken to mar- 
ket in the morning. But if it is designed to be kept 
through the season, let it be packed in a firkin and set 
by in a cool place for a few days, when the butter will 
be found to have shrunk from the sides of the firkin: the 
head should be put in, and through a hole bored in it, 
the cavity should be filled with strong brine, the hole 
stopped, and tiie firkin reversed — by which the butter 
will cleave from the head which was at tiie bottom, 
and become perfectly surrounded with a streak of brine; 
in which situation it may be kept sweet through the 


To prevent milk from becoming sour and curdling as 
it is apt to do in the heat of summer, the milk-men of 
Paris add a small quantity of sub-carbonate of potash or 
soda, which saturating tiie acid as it forms, prevents 
the coagulating or separating of curds, and some of them 
practice this with so much success as to gain the repu- 
tation of selling milk that never sours. Often when the 
coagulation has taken place, they restore the fluidity 
by a greater or less addition of the fixed alkalies. The 
acetate which is then formed has no injurious eflfects, 
and besides, milk contains naturally a small quantity of 
acetate, but not an atom of really a carbonated alkali. 






Fricandeau of, - 
To stew a rump of, 

" Brisket, 
To press, .... 
Hunter's beef, to make. 
An excellent mode of dressing, 
To collar, .... 
Steaks to make, - 
Collops, .... 
Cake of, .... 

Palates, .... 
To pot beef, - . - . 
Inside of a sirloin to dresa, 
Fricasse of cold roast beef, 
Beef olives. 
To mince beef, 
To hash beef, 
Round of beef, - 
Rolled beef, .... 
Tongue and udder to roast, 

" To stew, - 

" An excellent way to prepare 
for eating cold, • 


Ox cheek stewed, - - - 140 

Marow bones, 

Tripe, 141 

Currant jelly, 

Cooking, to regulate the time for. 


Leg of, .... 

Fore quarter 

Breast, .... 


Neck, .... 




Little bread pudding. 

Dutch rice do. - 

Batter do. - 

A rich rice do. 

Baked rice do. - 

An excellent i>otato do. 

Beef steak do. - 

Custard do. 

Fine pancakes, without butter or 

lard, 158 

Fine pancakes of rice, - - — 

Fritters, — 

Do. of potatoes, - - - — 

Pork, - - - 141 

To roast a leg of, - - 

To boil, do. - - - 

Loin and neck, - - 142 

Shoulder and breast, - - 

Spare-rib, - - - — 

Blade-bone, - - - 

Steaks, - - - 

Sausages, - - - 

An excellent sausage to eat cold, 143 

Head cheese, - • - — 

Pigs-feet jelly, - - - 144 

Pastry, ^-c. ... 159 

Rich puff paste, - - - — 

Egg mince pies, - - — 

Prune tart, • - - — 

Excellent light puff, - - — 

Mistress of a family, directions to, 121 
Meats to choose and cook in various 

ways, .... 124 to 128 

Mutton, 144 

Cutting and dressing, - • 

Neck of, 

Haunch of, to dross, - - • 145 

Saddle of, to roast, 

Breast, 146 

Loin, .... 

Collops, .... 

Steaks, . . . - 

Sausage, 147 

An excellent hotch-potch, - 

Puddings and pancakes, - - 154 

Almond pudding, - - 155 

Bread and butter pudding, - 

Orange do, 

Lemon do. • 

Baked apple do- 156 


Soups, ^c. 
Veal broth. 
White soup, - 
Pea soup, - 
Ox-rump soup, 

Veal, to keep. 
Leg of, - • 
Knuckle, - 
" A-IaBraise, 
Breast of, - 
To pot with ham, 
Cake, - 
Head, to boil, 
" Fricasee, 
Mock turtle. 


To pro'nire profitable cows, 

To shorten the time and diminish 

the Ia'>or of making butter. 
To make Potato cheese, equal to 

milk ctieoso, . . . - 
Directions for makins cood butter. 
To prevent milk I ecuming sour.